Academic journal article European Journal of Social & Behavioural Sciences, The

Comparison of the Effect of Three Methods of Creativity Development in Elementary Students in Tehran City

Academic journal article European Journal of Social & Behavioural Sciences, The

Comparison of the Effect of Three Methods of Creativity Development in Elementary Students in Tehran City

Article excerpt

1. Introduction Creativity is man's best need in all the life's dimensions and a jump in his/her thinking. Creativity includes combination of known ideas. The strength of the human being's brain enables him/her to enjoy the talent for creativity and it is because of the same talent that the scope of knowledge in increasing everyday more than yesterday. Creativity is one of the better specifications of human beings. In the current era, one of the most important goals of the progressive education of the world is educating creative and innovative learners (Saif, 2001). Balzac (2006) has studied the neurology of creativity and has reached the conclusion that creative innovations need simultaneous activity and connection of some parts in the brain that are not ordinarily in a strong contact with one another. Gardner (1982) believes that creativity starts from young ages and in his view, pre-school children have a lot of creative capabilities, but when they start school, they begin learning how read and write and in order to have coordination with others, they learn how to follow and obey. That is why their creativity decreases. Therefore, we have to think of ways that will not decrease the creativity in children.

According to the belief of most researchers, the traditional methods of education not only do not help with the growth of creativity, but in fact it is considered to be an obstacle (Berg, 2000). Therefore, one of the main tasks of teachers is to create, as much as possible, a definite and appropriate atmosphere in the classroom and take advantage of active and discovering teaching methods in the classroom and help the students to utilize their creative power.

In Torance's (2002) idea, creativity is considered to be a process that is evolved collectively. He believes that all people are creative and it does not necessarily belong to just smart people. Creativity can be increased and/or created in different ways. Torance looks at creativity as an evolution and considers factors such as modelling, motivation, methods of production of education in the formation of creativity to be effective.

Creativity means creating ideas that are new and valuable even for the creator of those ideas. In Renzveli's opinion (2002), creativity is a combination of innovation, flexibility and sensitivity from different points of views as such that the individual can think about different and generating results, apart from the results of unreasonable thoughts leading to things such as personal and others' satisfaction.

Some of the psychologists emphasize on the outcome of the creator's action. As a result, the outcome of creativity is important which has to have characteristic such as innovation, value and solidarity. Another group of psychologists put an emphasis on the creativity. The individuals consider it as a process of characteristics such as fluidity, flexibility and newness and believe that the creative process has several stages. For example, Wallace has mentioned four stages of preparation, latency, intuition, and stability for creativity.

- preparation: In this stage, all the sides of the problem will be taken into consideration and the mentioned problem will be identified and the truths related to it will be collected.

- Latency: In this stage, there is some mental processes that connect the new information with the past ones. Some types of new organization of information take place without the individual's direct awareness.

- Intuition: in this stage, a pleasant idea appears which is called "the aha phenomenon". At this stage, the creative person will suddenly learn the ideas of the solutions to the problem.

- Stability: In this stage, the idea that took place in the previous stage will be evaluated to reveal its credibility or the lack of it (Mirzaeeyan, 2004).

Today, the experts consider creativity as a fundamental knowledge for any change and innovation. According to Brolin (1999), the creation of new ideas and the innovative production are some of the cognitive characteristics of people. …

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