Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Effect of Combined Plyometric-Weight Training on Speed of Male Students with Different Body Fat Percent

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Effect of Combined Plyometric-Weight Training on Speed of Male Students with Different Body Fat Percent

Article excerpt

Introduction

Coaches, physical educators and researchers have examined that training modes became the most remarkable factor affecting performance and leading to the success in the respective events in the Olympics and World Championships or even enhancing fitness level of a person. In respect of that, plyometric in combination with weight training became the most common method to improve power, strength and speed. Coaches always combine different modes of exercise such as plyometric exercises, weight drills and sprint to prepare their athletes for competitions in order to improve their performance in sport.

Most types of sports including games (football, soccer, rugby) and individual sports (100m run) depend on speed as a physical fitness element which may lead to the success in sports. Running speed can be divided into three phases, acceleration phase, maximum phase and deceleration phase according to Ross et al (2009). In this case, 30m, 40m, and 50m sprints represent acceleration phase, maximum phase, and deceleration phase, respectively.

Combined plyometric and resistance training has positive effects on fitness variables such as speed (Ronnestad et al 2008, Rahimi et al 2006, Rahimi and Behpur 2005) and power (MacDonald et al 2012, DE Villarreal et al 2011).

Many investigators studied the combination between two training modes such as sprint and resistance training and plyometric and resistance training who indicated improvement in speed times (Herrero et al 2010, Ronnestad et al. 2008, Dodd et al 2007, Lyttle et al 1996, Ford et al 1983).

Ross et al (2009) studied 3 groups of male athletes (sprint group, resistance group and combined sprint and resistance group) on 30m sprint for 7 weeks of combined resistance and sprint (treadmill) training, 2-4 days per week; found that combined sprint and resistance training group improved significantly (p < 0.05) when post training was compared with pre training but there were no change between groups (p > 0.05) after training. Chelly et al (2010), Ronnestad et al (2008), and Rimmer & Sleivert (2000) also indicated the same results in 40m sprint time. In addition, Negussie, (2012) studied the effects of 12 weeks of combined resistance, track running, stairs (plyometric) and massage therapy on 50m sprint; found significant change after training for both combined exercise and massage training group and exercise only group however, no change was shown between groups.

Body fat percent is a vital factor affecting fitness level and performance of athletes in various sports. This is evident that the fat under skin is considered as a negative aspect in sport performance and fitness especially when exceeding 20%. It is also known fact that the leaner athletes perform better than their opponents (athletes with excess body fat) in activity where the body mass must be moved through space. Sports performance such as speed, endurance, balance, agility, and jumping ability are all negatively affected by a high level of fitness. Therefore performance, mainly in activities that require one to bear one's body weight over distance, will be facilitated by a large proportion of inactive tissue that is fat mass (William et al 2000, Wilmore and Costill 1999). Inacio et al (2011) investigated the effects of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% of added body weight for both the genders on anaerobic exercise performance. Their results demonstrated significant decrement in performance of 40 yard at 2-10% loading; from 7.80 ± 0.96 to 8.39 ± 1.07 sec; P < 0.05). Miller et al (2002) studied and revealed that increases in body fat were also negatively correlated with performance in the 40 yard. Coaches and physical educators always give guidance to their athletes for taking balance diet to maintain their body fat. There are no studies which have compared the effects of combined plyometric- resistance training program on two groups with different normal body fat percent on speed variable and hence this study will focus on the new findings. …

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