Academic journal article Journal of Marketing and Management

The Mediating Influence of Job Satisfaction on the Relationship between HR Practices and Cyberdeviance

Academic journal article Journal of Marketing and Management

The Mediating Influence of Job Satisfaction on the Relationship between HR Practices and Cyberdeviance

Article excerpt


The Internet has been dubbed as the "double-edged" sword as it offers both benefits and detriments to the work lives. It has facilitated communication both within an organization and with other organizations, and has enabled employees to be more productive due to increased accessibility to information (Chen, Chen, & Yang, 2008; Henle& Blanchard, 2008). At the same time, it has also invited a myriad of problems at work. For instance, it offers an opportunity for employees to engage in new forms of deviant behavior during work hours such as surfing non-work related sites (Roman, 1996; Tapia, 2006), playing games online, performing personal banking online, updating personal blogs/websites, or using email for personal purposes (Weatherbee, 2010). In other words, according to Lim and Teo (2005), the Internet has given people more chances to waste time in the cyberspace in the name of doing work. For Lim (2002) and her colleagues (Lim & Teo, 2005), such phenomenon is referred to as cyberdeviance.

Previous surveys on Internet-related misbehavior indicated that cyberdeviance is rife in organizations. For instance, the latest survey conducted by in 2012 in the USA showed the prevalence of cyberdeviance. Of more than 3200 individuals surveyed between February and March 2012, 64% of them indicated that they visited non-work related websites every day during work hours (Gouveia, 2012). In a 2008 survey by the Internet Data Corp, it was reported in the USA that 40% of workplace Internet use was not business related and 60% of all online purchases were made during regular work hours (, 2013). According to the second annual survey by America Online and, the biggest distraction at work is personal use of the Internet, which was committed by 52% of the 2,706 respondents during July 2006 (Malachowski & Simonini, 2012). If indeed the statistics reflect the true scenario at work, organizations will end up having losses in productivity and performance. So as wasting time in the cyberspace in the name of doing work can hurt the bottom line of an organization, ways to address such phenomenon need to be found.

According to Robbins and Judge (2010), human resource (HR) practices are one of the factors in the organization that could shape and determine employee responses at work, and may potentially have influence on cyberdeviance. But to date, few studies have considered the influence of such practices on cyberdeviance. Such neglect is unfortunate as studies have found that conducive work environment is important for positive job performance (Arthur, 2011; Bushra, Usman, & Naveed, 2011; Lian & Tui, 2012; Zahari & Shurbagi, 2012).

Secondly, scholars also argue that HR practices have a dismal effect on work-related outcomes (Wright, Gardner, & Moynihan, 2003), suggesting the need to consider a mechanism that mediates between the two. To address this limitation, the present study considered job satisfaction as a generative mechanism that helps explain the link between HR practices and cyberdeviance. This is because separate studies have shown that HR practices are associated with job satisfaction (e.g., Absar et al., 2010; Goyal & Shrivastava, 2012; Hunjra et al., 2010; Javed, Rafiq, Ahmed, & Khan, 2012; Petrescu & Simmons, 2008; Poon, 2004; Sirca, Babnik, & Breznik, 2012), and subsequently job satisfaction has been shown to be related to negative work outcomes (e.g., Hausknecht, Hiller, & Vance, 2008; Singh & Loncar, 2010; Wang & Yi, 2011). By incorporating these two streams of research in a single study, it is possible to postulate the mediating link of job satisfaction on the relationship between HR practices and cyberdeviance.

Given the existing gaps in the current body of knowledge, the present study sought to explore the role of HR practices in influencing cyberdeviance at work, and to investigate whether job satisfaction can help explain why HR practices are able to affect cyberdeviance. …

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