Academic journal article Economics & Sociology

Analysis of Sustainable Management Forms on Protected Areas

Academic journal article Economics & Sociology

Analysis of Sustainable Management Forms on Protected Areas

Article excerpt

Introduction - nature of protected areas

Protected areas have a huge socio-economic significance. Therefore, they should subject to protection within an essential range in order to sustain natural capital function- restitution and should be used in a rational way.

In accordance with current law in natural protection systems, the following forms can be distinguished (Zielinska, 2007):

1) Forms of spatial protection, including:

* traditional forms of protection (national parks and nature reserves),

* newer forms of protection (landscape parks and protected area landscapes),

* European forms of protection (Nature 2000 areas);

2) Individual forms of protection, including: natural monuments, documentary positions, ecological lands, nature and landscape complexes;

3) Forms of protection of plants, animals and mushrooms species, which have two possible solutions:

* in situ protection, meaning protection of ecosystems and natural species habitats, and the keeping and restitution of populations able to live in their natural environment, versus domesticated or farm species that live in a surrounding, where they developed their specific features,

* ex situ protection, meaning protection of biological diversity components beyond their natural environment.

Protected areas play several different functions, which are of socio-economic character, such as: tourism and entertainment, aesthetic and spiritual, medical, climatic, scientific and educational, agricultural, forestry and protection. The most important function off these areas is a protective function, which puts many restrictions on business activity. Implementation of certain kinds of pro-ecological activity depends on the form of the protected area. Managing protected areas is possible through economic ecologization.

Ecologization influences the economic development of local societies' and improves quality of life. Society finds additional employment and income from the pro-ecological sphere of business activity (Zielinska, 2010).

However, the concentration of many tasks, such as: environmental, economic, social, institutional and spatial, on relatively small, protected areas, leads to a rise in conflicts, such as: social and spatial ones. One should take into account people, who live within these areas and have worked there for ages; that is why one should cultivate traditional forms of managing, which will be in accordance with sustainable development principles and will not influence protected areas destructively. That is also, why, effective functioning of protected areas is dependent on local society, which has to be sure that existence of these areas is a chance for development and quality of life improvement.

Nowadays, local communities can often view forms of protected areas as obstacle to development. A cause of such a view is low ecological awareness. Society is not aware that a loss of natural environmental resources often has irreversible character and in a long period of time deprives certain regions of chances for development. That is why, a concept of sustainable development, where economic, environmental and social aspects interpenetrate each other, should be a constant educational element (Zielinska, 2013).

Restrictions on the ways of managing protected areas mainly concern ventures of higher intensification of management and new investments, which have to be assessed from an environmental point of view.

The aim of this article is to diagnose possibilities to accomplish forms of managing protected areas, which are in accordance with legal laws. Statistical analysis will be conducted for each business activity, and the possibility to accomplish it on protected areas.

Sustainable management on protected areas

Forms of environmental protection have distinguished allowable and forbidden ways of management, in the form of many restrictions and prohibitions, regulated in Poland's act on environmental protection (Journal of Law, 2009) (Table 1 in Annex). …

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