Academic journal article European Journal of Social & Behavioural Sciences, The

The Impact of Cultural Metaphors on Learning Effectiveness in English as a Foreign Language Curriculum

Academic journal article European Journal of Social & Behavioural Sciences, The

The Impact of Cultural Metaphors on Learning Effectiveness in English as a Foreign Language Curriculum

Article excerpt

1. Introduction:

The formal study of English as a foreign language (EFL) is typically based on teaching s tudents linguistic forms . This has been because linguists believed that language is organized around the study of linguis tic forms . This model was called the Firs t Generation of Cognitive Linguistics . Current research on language, however, argued for a different model of language learning, often described as the Second Generation of Cognitive Linguistics. Lakoff and Johnson (1980, 1999) argued that language is organized not around linguis tic forms, but around cognitive categories. Lakoff (1987) provided the rationale for the claim that language has to do with the organization of ideas and their categories. But thes e works also made an additional claim. These authors also argued that language is a highly creative activity based on the use of figurative language (metaphor, metonymy, etc.). This was becaus e metaphors provided some of the categories for the organization of thought.

Metaphor plays a dominant role in language. It is one of the major forces behind linguis tic creativity. Metaphor is not only used to create new lexical domains, but also for new grammatical constructions. This new user of metaphor is a major part of the focus of this s tudy. To unders tand how grammatical cons tructions can be metaphorical, one needs to delve into the emergent theory of cognitive linguistics with its research interes ts in conceptualization, categorization, grammaticalization, and the us e of language for the communication of meaning. This is not to s ay that linguis tic forms are not important to EFL curriculum and Instruction . They are. However, forms are used for the purpos e of communicating in a meaningful way. This new way of communicating meaning cons ists of schemes, frames, and s cenarios , which play an important role in teaching culture. Within the previous sections, several questions remain unanswered in the extant research. The following ques tions form the core of this research:

1.1 What is the impact of the CLTCMP teaching method on the students ' unders tanding of English reading and American cultural metaphors?

1.2 What are the students' and teachers ' perceptions of the new CLTCMP teaching method, including discovering whether the method is identified as effective or not?

2. Literature Review

Kovecses (2005) indicated that the analys is of metaphors in language could reveal a great deal of patterning. This strongly suggests that at least on an unconscious level, the linguistic metaphors also manifes t elaborate structures. Kovecses suggested that linguistic expressions serve as indications of neuronal connections between two sets of neurons in the brain which correspond to intens ity and heat. According to Kovecses 's re-analysis of the metaphorical linguistic express ions regarding the two sets of neurons, intensity and heat, identified by Alice Deignan (1995), the metaphorical express ions can be broken down into different poss ible metaphorical entailments of the intensity by heat. The functional analysis can also be applied in mass media such as television, broadcast and newspapers . Examples of the metaphorical express ion analys is follow. Some of these applications were also used in the lesson plans of the experimental group of English learners. The use of these expressional skills in English would better students' understanding and increase communication skills with their audience, native English speakers.

There are numerous researches regarding cultural metaphor comprehens ion in the first language acquis ition field, however, there are limited res earches in the second or foreign language acquis ition filed. (Ackerman, 1998) According to Ackerman, psycholinguistic res earch sugges ts metaphorical s tatements can be processed as eas ily as literal one by native speakers; however, it is challenge for non -native speakers to understand the specific cultural meaning of metaphor that native speakers used daily. …

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