Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

Trends of Blood and Plasma Donations in Kazakhstan: 12-Years Retrospective Analysis

Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

Trends of Blood and Plasma Donations in Kazakhstan: 12-Years Retrospective Analysis

Article excerpt

Itroduction

Blood transfusion services are integral and indis- pensable parts of the healthcare system facing the dual challenge of ensuring a sufficient supply of blood and blood products, as well as quality and safety for patients (1, 2). Donors are the source of blood from whom globally more than a million units are collected every year. Generally, donors are classified into three categories: voluntary, family/replacement and remunerated (3). At the present time, internationally the major source of donated blood is a combination of fam- ily/replacement donors (mainly relatives, friends and workmates of patients), and a growing num- ber of voluntary non-remunerated donors (4). However in most developing and transitional countries replacement and paid blood donors are still a significant source of blood (5, 6).

Despite the growing demand for blood due to surgery, cancer treatment, and aging population, the number of blood donors is reducing (6). Thus, each country faces a continued challenge to collect enough blood from safe donors to meet national needs. Indeed, with each unit of blood there is a risk to become infected with transfusion- transmissible infections, mainly hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis (7, 8). According to WHO, repeat vol- untary non-remunerated donors are the safest source of blood (9). Thus, a policy aimed at 100% voluntary non-remunerated donor blood procure- ment by the year 2020 has been adopted (10). Without a system based on voluntary non- remunerated blood donation, especially on a regu- lar voluntary donation, no one country can pro- vide enough safe blood for all patients requiring transfusion (11).

Kazakhstan is a country in Central Asia with a population of over 16 million people, and a geo- graphical area of 2,724,900 km2. The country is divided into 16 administrative and geographical entities (14 oblasts and the cities of Astana and Almaty) (12). The history of blood transfusion in Kazakhstan as well as of other countries of the former USSR is related to the Soviet period (13, 14). In 1934 the Kazakh branch of the Central Institute for Blood Transfusion was organized, later in 1941 reorganized into the Kazakh Repub- lican Blood Transfusion Station of the Ministry of Health of the Kazakh SSR. In parallel, the regional stations and other institutions of blood transfu- sion were opened. During the period 1935-1945 blood transfusion stations in 13 cities of Kazakh- stan and 25 blood transfusion units in major re- gional centers and towns were organized. After the year 1945 the main task was to massively at- tract people to donate blood (15). Since the mid 50s of the 20th century the intensive work on blood donation, especially voluntary non- remunerated donation development, began (16). From 1963 to 2011 the blood procurement in- creased from 9,778 to 398,000 units. Throughout Kazakhstan new stations and branches were opened. At the end of 1981 there were 28 blood transfusion stations and 125 units for blood trans- fusion (15) over the Republic; in 2000, 28 blood centers and 150 units for blood transfusion (17). In the following years, in line with global trends reorganization of the blood transfusion service, including the closure of some blood transfusion units in regional hospitals took place.

Today 23 blood centers are operational: Scientific Production Center of Blood Transfusion in Asta- na, Republican Blood Center in Almaty, 14 re- gional and 7 city centers, as well as 21 blood trans- fusion units (18), each operating within a defined geographical area and providing services to the population within the relevant region. Blood transfusion units relate to hospitals. The remain- ing blood centers are independent organizations, but all are under regular control of Scientific and Production Center of Blood Transfusion (19) and the Ministry of Health. During the blood service reform in accordance with international standards the government programs have been designed to focus on solving some critical tasks necessary for the development of blood services (20-22). …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.