Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Development of Indicators of Cyberbullying among Youths in Songkhla Province

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Development of Indicators of Cyberbullying among Youths in Songkhla Province

Article excerpt

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to develop indicators and to test the goodness of fit of the structural relationship model of indicators of cyberbullying among youths in Songkhla Province. The study was conducted with 480 youths, and confirmatory factor analysis was performed.

The results of the study revealed that the indicators of cyberbullying among youths in Songkhla Province consisted of five factors with twenty-four indicators. The factor with the highest weight was slandering (b=0.90) consisting of five indicators, followed by revealing other people's personal secrets (b=0.89) consisting of five indicators; identity theft (b=0.88) consisting of five indicators; deleting or blocking others from the group (b=0.65) consisting of four indicators; and flaming (b=0.17) consisting of five indicators. The linear structural model of cyberbullying among youths was in statistically significant congruence with empirical data.

Keywords: confirm factor analysis, cyberbullying, indicators development, youths

1. Introduction

Information technology advancement provides other ways for youths to have more freedom and alternatives for doing violence to others causing cyberbullying that can happen at all time and places through electronic communication tools like computers and mobile phones with the Internet as the interface (Field, 2006; Chamchuli, 2007; Pokpong & Musikphan, 2010). Cyberbullying is done through writing to slander and tease others which can be done through posting pictures or video clips that are other people's secrets both true and not true on social network places to harass, threat, damage or embarrass others. This is an effective and quick way to publicize such writing, pictures and video clips to virtually everyone. Social network sites are also places where people can express their opinions freely that the persons being bullied cannot respond which results in stress, feeling hurt, embarrassment, and loss of confidence in living with others in society. In some cases, it can lead to the problem of violence (Smith, Mahdavi, Carvalho, & Tippett, 2006; Willard, 2006; Hines, 2011; Wipulakorn, 2013).

Even though most research findings tend to indicate that cyberbullying among youths is normal and accepted as outlets and fun because nobody is injured and troubled. Thus, it does not receive much attention and is not very seriously addressed (Pokpong & Musikphan, 2010). Bullying among youths is an issue known in groups of peers who bully and being bullied, and there are never-ending retaliations going back and forth among them in the cyber world (Musikphan, Yongchin, & Chancharoen, 2011). The important cause of cyberbullying is youths' access to modern communication tools like mobile phones and the Internet that are widely available and speedy. Cyberbullying among youths can be classified into five types: (1) flaming through email, (2) slandering through social networks, (3) using others' names through social networks, (4) revealing or forwarding other people's personal secrets or information in online networks, and (5) deleting or blocking others from cyber groups (Willard, 2006; Hines, 2011).

From reviewing related documents and research reports, no standardized measurement tools for cyberbullying had been developed in Thailand. Most cyberbullying- related literature was found to be about the problem and types of bullying, and equipment used through cyberbullying. No studies about tools or development of indicators of cyberbullying among youths were found. Nowadays youths' behaviors in using online social networks have been expanded widely and quickly. Therefore, youths utilized online social networks as tools to bully others in many ways causing bad effects on bullies themselves and youths being bullied. This can cause problems that are difficult to solve to family and society. Thus, it is necessary to develop concrete and clear indicators of cyberbullying among youths to use in testing and screening youths to solve the problem. …

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