Academic journal article UTMS Journal of Economics

Sustainable Event Tourism: Case Study City of Pula, Croatia

Academic journal article UTMS Journal of Economics

Sustainable Event Tourism: Case Study City of Pula, Croatia

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

This paper's goal is to determine what effects event tourism has on the city environment, local community and economy, i.e. in what measure such a form of tourism is sustainable. For that purpose, due to its mass attendance and intensity of effects on the environment, population and economy, festival character events, held at three City localities: Stinjan, Arena and Monte Zaro, were observed.

The research hypothesis is that sustainable event tourism realises mutually opposed and polarised effects on the environment, local population and economy. The research locality is the City of Pula and its three local boards (L.B.)2: Arena, Monte Zaro and Stinjan, in which most attended events in the city are held.

L.B. Arena is made up of the city districts of Arena, Croatia and Kolodvor; L.B. Monte Zaro of the equally named city district, while L.B. Stinjan consists of the suburban settlement of Stinjan, suburban tourist areas of Puntakristo, Puntizela, Valdezunac and Camulimenti, as well as the islands of Sveti Jerolim, Kozada and Sveta Katarina. In the L.B. Arena locality, the event venue is the Roman amphitheatre (Arena), in which, during the summer period, a film festival and numerous concerts are held. In the L.B. Monte Zaro locality, festival character events are held in the premises of the Club Uljanik and Cultural Centre Rojc and they are strictly characterised by the rock culture. In the L.B. Stinjan locality, festivals of versatile music and scene and cultural and art schools and styles are held in abandoned military facilities: Fort Punta Christo, Puntizela, Sveta Katarina and Camulimenti.

PROBLEM AREA RESEARCH TO DATE

Event tourism is the term used for all forms of tourist traffic motivated by the staging of various events (Vukonic and Cavlek 2001) and it includes visits to all planned events which have a tourist purpose and form a part of the attraction basis of a specific destination. There are eight main types of events: cultural, political, economic, entertainment, scientific and educational, sports competitions, recreational and private. Cultural events include festivals, carnivals, commemorations and religious events. Political events are heads of state summits, royal ceremonies, political meetings and visits of important persons.

Although events were also previously studied from various scientific and research discourses, according to Getz (2008), the very first papers on event tourism are deemed to be those published in the Journal of Travel Research by Ritchie and Beliveau (1974) and Della Bitta and others (1977). Numerous papers on economic, socio-cultural and environmental implications of event tourism followed after that, in the last thirty years. Among them the researches on concept, definition and classification of events, festivals and gatherings are important (Ritchie 1984, Jenkins and Pigram 2003; Getz 2004, 2008, 2010; Gelder and Robinson 2011).

Festivals are the most frequent events in the form of carnivals, religious events, parades or commemorations (Presbury and Edwards 2010). Festivals can have different forms, starting from music ones, including jazz, rock, pop or folk music, to cultural and wine festivals and attendance may vary within the range of between around one hundred and several thousand visitors (Gelder and Robinson 2011).

For this paper, the most important are the researches relating to sustainable event tourism and which occur in the last phase of research of the phenomenon. One of the three key components3 with which sustainable tourism must be harmonised is the local community, i.e. the population of the locality in which tourist activity takes place (Swarbrooke 1999; Weaver 2006).

There are also related research papers on ecological (Dávid 2009), economic (Raj and Musgrave 2009; Henderson 2011) and socio-cultural aspect of events, (Tassiopoulos and Johnson 2009; Deery and Jago 2010), measuring of economic and social event effects (McHone and Rungeling 2000; Wood 2005; Griffin 2009), as well as sustainable management of festivals, congresses and gatherings (Pressbury and Edwards 2010; Musgrave 2011). …

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