Academic journal article Journal of Urban and Regional Analysis

Urban Footprint of Mumbai - the Commercial Capital of India

Academic journal article Journal of Urban and Regional Analysis

Urban Footprint of Mumbai - the Commercial Capital of India

Article excerpt

Introduction

Urbanization involves transformation of various land uses into urban areas. Unplanned and uncontrolled urban expansion leads to environmental degradation causing shortages of housing, worsening water quality, excessive air pollution, improper waste management etc. (Ramachandra et al. 2012, Uttara et al. 2012). The process of urbanization has a major impact on the land use patterns, affecting functional aspects of the landscape (Hara et al. 2005, Frohn and Hao 2006), including the process of waste assimilation. This necessitates mapping and monitoring of urban footprint through quantification of paved surface (built up, roads, etc.). The proportion of paved surface (built up, roads, etc.) with the reduction of other land use types in a region is referred as urban footprint. A concentrated growth of urban footprint often leads to the dispersed growth or urban sprawl at outskirts. Urban sprawl is often referred to as uncontrolled, scattered sub-urban development which lacks basic amenities such as treated water supply, sanitation, infrastructure, etc. with serious implications on local ecology and environment (Peiser 2001, Yedla 2003, Sudhira et al. 2004, Huang et al. 2008, Ramachandra et al. 2012, Bharath et al. 2012). Advanced understanding and visualization of sprawl helps in better regional planning with appropriate basic infrastructure and amenities (like supply of treated water, electricity, sanitation facilities). These regions are often left out of most of the governmental surveys (ex: national population census) as these pockets are not grouped under either urban or rural areas. The understanding of sprawl dynamics is very crucial to provide better governance with basic amenities and it also balances the provision of natural resources and human needs through visualized and orderly regional planning. Urban sprawl was evaluated and characterized exclusively based on major socio-economic indicators such as population growth, commuting costs, employment shifts, city revenue change, and number of commercial establishments (Han and He 1999, Brueckner 2000, Lucy and Phillips 2000, Lin and Ho 2003, Lichtenberg and Ding 2008). However, these approaches do not identify and quantify the impacts of urban sprawl in a spatial context that is required for local area planning.

Availability of temporal remotely sensed data acquired through space-borne sensors helps detecting the urban landscape dynamics in relation to urbanization (Chen et al. 2000, Epstein et al. 2002, Lo and Yang 2002, Ji et al. 2001, Lo and Yang 2002, Yeh and Li 2001, Sudhira et al. 2003, Ramachandra et al. 2012). This aids in characterizing the spatiotemporal trends of urbanization process and sprawl (Zerah 2008). Computation of metrics and modelling based on multi temporal spatial data provides a basis for predicting urbanization processes. This information supports policy making for an effective urban planning with natural resources conservation. Further temporal dynamics information with spatial metrics provides insights to the urbanization pattern (i.e., property, complexity and size of the existing urban area), which helps the sustainable regional development (Hill et al. 2004, DeFries 2008, Bhatta 2009a, 2009b, Ramachandra et al. 2012).

Urban pattern analysis provides the spatial properties and configuration of the area at a particular time (Galster et al. 2001) as urban patterns deal with the physical structure and the spatial characteristics of the urban processes that vary over time (Aguilera et al. 2011). Urban patterns have been analysed using spatial metrics (Jiang et al. 2007, Angel et al. 2007, Bharath et al. 2012, Ramachandra et al. 2012). Spatial metrics are useful in detecting the evolution of the urban sprawl pattern with time. These metrics, developed for thematic categorical maps, are applicable to a particular scale and resolution (Herold et al. 2003). Spatial metrics concepts are mostly used in the landscape ecology, but recently, it is being applied in the urban environments for mapping the urban process and structure (Alberti and Waddell 2000, Herold et al. …

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