Academic journal article Geopolitics, History and International Relations

Idus (Injectable Drug Users) in Constanta

Academic journal article Geopolitics, History and International Relations

Idus (Injectable Drug Users) in Constanta

Article excerpt

Definitions

After working for 15 years among drug users the definition that I would provide is: a drug is a substance (natural or synthetic) that causes addiction (physical or mental) and implicates growing consumption drives.

Etymologically speaking, drug is a word of Dutch origin - droog. (Drägan, 1994:39)

The first definition of drug, offered by the Romanian Explanatory Dictionary, is "the substance of vegetable, animal or mineral origin used in the preparation of medicines and as a drug" (Drugescu, 2001: 81).

The classical meaning of drug is (World Health Organization' definition), "the substance which, when absorbed by a living organism, may modify one or more of its functions" (Dragan, 1994:10).

By drug is meant "drugs under international control, established by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961" and "psychotropic substances whose international control is provided by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, signed in 1971" (Dragan, 1994:41).

Psychotropic substances are considered all off natural origin (plant, animal or mineral) or synthetic, that may change in any way the work of the psyche and human behavior. "They act directly upon the central nervous system affecting unequally, selectively or globally both the instinctive mental functions and emotional processes" (Bärbulescu, Prodan, Grigorescu, 1979: 105).

To manufacture some drugs certain chemicals called precursors are necessary; they are listed in Table IV of Law. 143/2000. Precursors are "chemicals used in the illicit manufacture of drugs, their salts and mixtures containing such substances" (art. 2 letter "a" of Law. 300/2002 published in Official Gazette no. 409/June 13, 2002). Legal status of these substances is regulated by Law no. 300/2002.

National Regulations

* Law no. 143 of 26 July 2000 on combating illicit drug and trafficking,

* Law no. 169 of 10 April 2002 amending the Criminal Code, the * Criminal Procedure Code and special laws,

* Law no. 39 of 21 January 2003 on preventing and combating organized crime,

* Law no. 522 of 24 November 2004 amending and supplementing Law no. 143/2000 on combating illicit drug and trafficking,

* Order no. 128/602/4425/36219/2629 of 27 August 2001 on the prevention of illicit drug use,

* Resolution no. 1489 of 18 December 2002 establishing the NAA (National Antidrug Agency),

* Resolution no. 1093 of 15 July 2004 amending and completing Government Decision no. 1.489/2002 establishing the NAA,

* Law no. 381 of 28 September 2004 on financial measures for preventing and combating illicit drug and trafficking,

* Order no. 1142 of September 15, 2004 for determining the content framework of training curricula of doctors involved in the addictions treatment,

* Resolution no. 154 of 6 February 2003 approving the National Drugs Strategy for the period 2003-2004,

* Resolution no. 1023 of 25 June 2004 approving the Action Plan to implement the National Anti-Drug Strategy in 2004,

* Order no. 725/IA-898 of 15 October 2002 on health and educational measures applied to drug addicts in prisons.

Consumption and drug trafficking

The UN estimate that drugs activities is second after arms deal. The phenomenon is very complex and the turnovers are hundreds of billions of dollars each year. Consumption and drug trafficking embodies numerous dangers for the economic and social situation of humanity.

There is a high dependence between the legislation of each country and drug use (production, trading and marketing). There are countries that criminalize drug use even for personal use (Lithuania, Romania, Czech Republic, Poland, etc.) and there are countries that allow people to have a small amount of drugs for personal use. One example is Estonia where possession for personal use of small amounts is allowed, but if within 12 months drugs is found twice on you (even if for personal use) is applied punishment under criminal law (UNODC). …

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