Academic journal article Journal of Social Welfare and Management

India and China: A Comparative Study of Social Welfare Policies for Better Future

Academic journal article Journal of Social Welfare and Management

India and China: A Comparative Study of Social Welfare Policies for Better Future

Article excerpt

Introduction

The concept of Social policy was trace in 16th century in the reign of Umar-ibn-n who ordered to utilized 'ZAAH' collection for social welfare. Later, when the concept of welfare state came into existence, social policy became more importance task for state. In the capitalists age, observing the bad result of non-intervention of state in human life created hue and cry in Europe. Then Political thinkers: Carley, Rusin, J.S. Mill, T. Green, Prof. Barer, G.D.H. Cole, Maclver and Hobhouse advocated the functions of state and were in favour to give more and more welfare function to the state. The famous sociologist August Comte, Charles Bouth also discussed in their writing about social policies in the first industrialist countries. Nigerian sociologist Tade Ain Aina, Social Policy refers to the "systematic and deliberate interventions in the social life of a country to ensure the satisfaction of the basic needs and the well being of the majority of its citizens. This is seen as expression of socially desirable goals through legislation, institution and administrative programs and practices..."[1]

In the 21st century, most of the nations of the world have been adopted the concept of welfare state and state has been working on the principles of democracy. Besides exercising significant duties i.e. to protect of sovereignty and integrity of nation, it is also efforting for food, education, health, housing and social security etc. I believe, before going to do comparative study of the social policies of India and China, we should understand the meaning of Social Policy first:

Meaning and definition of social policy

Social policy is basically set of guidelines for the changing, maintenance or creation of living conditions that are conducive to human welfare. Thus, social policy is a part of public policy that deals with social issues such as public access to social programs. Social policy aims to improve human welfare and to meet human needs for education, health, housing and social security. In an academic environment, social policy refers to the study of the welfare state and the range of responses to social need.

In this context, Prof. Hagenbuch said, "Social policy in general term the mainspring of social policy may said to be the desire to ensure every member of the community, certain opportunities" .[2] We find the most comprehensive definition in the statement given by Prof. Macbeath in 1957 Hobhouse Lecture:, "Social policies are concerned with the right ordering of the network of relationships' between men and women who also live together in societies, or with the principles which should govern the activities of individuals and groups so far as they affect the lives and interests of other.[3]

A comparative study of social policies of India and China

India and China, two Asian giant, already honoured for the birth of two Great civilization (Sindhu Ghati Civilization (India) and Mesopotamia Civilization in mainland China), are now claiming themselves to be emerging superpower in the 21st century. No doubt, they have been registered themselves already as superpower in term of Population; one has assumed 1st rank while other is on second position.

In the Second World War almost all countries of the world faced a lot of destruction, India and China also victim of this. Therefore, just after its independence Government of India planned to revive and uplift its socialEconomic condition through proper planning, so it introduced Five Year Plan (1951) and since then it has been keeping on formulating, drafting policies and programs while seeing the loopholes step by step. In the same way, China when emerged as People Republic of China on the world map drafted and implemented Five Year Plan just after 2 years of India. Fortunately, due to its strong implementation methodology, not much gap between theory and practice of social policies, China recovered its weakness sooner than India resulted People Republic China in both sense human development; and microeconomic and international trade has assumed appreciable position. …

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