Academic journal article International Journal of Linguistics

The Use of Krama Inggil (Javanese Language) in Family Domain at Semarang and Pekalongan Cities

Academic journal article International Journal of Linguistics

The Use of Krama Inggil (Javanese Language) in Family Domain at Semarang and Pekalongan Cities

Article excerpt


This descriptive study aimed to capture the natural use of Javanese language called krama inggil in the family domain, at Semarang and Pekalongan cities. The research method used was a qualitative method. Qualitative methods led researchers to be welcomed without prejudice in the form of speech that receives the case, the researcher emphasize the subjective aspects of the behavior of native speakers in order to understand the circumstances that exist in the form of speech research areas.

The research findings obtained that there are different orientation between speech krama inggil used in Semarang with krama inggil used in Pekalongan. The use of krama inggil in Semarang is oriented on self - kramanisation. The use of krama inggil in Pekalongan is oriented to the prevailing normative standards in the Javanese language.

Keywords: Javanese language, krama inggil1, The family domain

1. Introduction

Javanese language is grouped into the Big language in Java, it has a fairly wide area coverage and the number of speakers is quite large, more than 80 million (KBJ IV, 2006; Nothofer, 1982 and 1987), as well as a complex speech level (Poedjosoedarmo et al, 1979). The main function of the Javanese language is a marker of identity / Javanese identities. As the language identity, Javanese Language is used as a means of communication in the family environment, the Javanese community, conveys locally proselytizing tool, revealer Javanese art and ceremonial traditions.

The basic culture in Java is the stratified society that shape the use of any language rise, starting from level ngoko, arma, until arma inggil. Stratified-level is something that is essential in the Javanese community. However, the essential thing is not accompanied by the ability to use the Javanese language in a lurus-leres 'right and true', it is resulting in the decreasing of the quality of the use of the Javanese language. According to the Javanese community, the ability to use the Javanese language is already in decrease, especially at the level of arma and arma inggil. This deterioration has also occurred quite long (Sudaryanto, 1989:96-97).

The current phenomenon is the interest in using the Javanese language is reduced and life is becoming increasingly brittle. This phenomenon is characterized by the deterioration of Javanese speakers and the decrease in the ability to use the Javanese language. Symptoms of shrinkage in quantity and quality of language use Java, proven through research: (1) Speakers in urban Java less than 40.44% (Laksono, 2006:92), (2) Speakers Java in Semarang city living only 26.16% (Handono, 2004: 24), (3) the young generation in Java, Semarang who still knew the couple lexicon ngoko and arma only 12.5% only (Pujiastuti et al, 2008:89), and (4) going to the east will be reduced to the form arma (Nothofer, 1982:290; 1987: 147; 1991:8).

The reluctance to speak Javanese Language especially karma and arma inggil as well as decreasing in the quality of the trigger factor is the low vocabularies mastery, lack of ability sorting vocabulary, and the fragility of the application unggah-ungguh (level-speech) Javanese language. This phenomenon reinforces the assumption that Javanese speakers are not accustomed to using arma inggil in their daily life in the family, including Javanese speakers in Semarang and Pekalongan. Departing from the assumption that developed in the Java environment speech community, this research aims to capture the condition of the real use of Javanese arma inggil in the family domain at Semarang and Pekalongan.

2. Literature Studies

The literature review in this research focused on utilizing and optimizing the results of research, scientific papers, and journals that are closely related to the issue of the Javanese language in public life he said.

2.1 Javanese Speech Levels

Literature review of the scientific works and research results with the object is speech level (undha-usuk), Javanese language has a particularly important role to determine the range of research that has been done and the alignment between theory and reality of using Javanese Language in the field. …

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