Academic journal article The Journal of Educational Research

Translation and Validation of Metacognitions Questionnaire-30: A Pilot Study on Pakistani Adults

Academic journal article The Journal of Educational Research

Translation and Validation of Metacognitions Questionnaire-30: A Pilot Study on Pakistani Adults

Article excerpt


The present study aimed first, to translate the MCQ-30 in National language (i.e., Urdu) of Pakistan and second, to analyze the psychometric properties (reliability and validity) of the Urdu translated version of MCQ-30 on Pakistani adults. The process of translation included forward translation, backward translation and discussion with bilingual experts and professionals of psychology. The final Urdu version of MCQ-30 was tested on 50 adults including males (N=25) and females (N=25), all married. Hie randomly selected samples were taken from different areas of Bahawalpur City. The reliability of scale was assessed through analysis of Cronbach's Alpha and test re-tests reliability. Cross language validity of the MCQ-30 English and Urdu Versions are 0.69 (English-Urdu) and 0.62 (Urdu-English). Reliability of the Urdu translated version of SPS inferred by Cronbach's Alpha ranges from 0.57-0.67 for the five subscales of the MCQ30; and test re-test reliability coefficient is 0.72.


The most straightforward definition of Meta cognition is that it is thinking about thinking (Bogdan, 2000; Flavell, 1999; Metcalfe, 2000). Meta cognition involves knowing how to reflect and analyze thought, how to draw conclusions from that analysis, and how to put what has been learned into practice. In order to solve problems, students and others often need to understand how their mind functions. In other words, they need to perceive how they perform important cognitive tasks such as remembering, learning, and problem solving.

Flavell (1976) first introduced the term metacognition, in which he referred as "one's knowledge concerning one's own cognitive processes or anything related to them". Cognitive psychologists (e.g., Miller, 2000; Newell & Simon, 1972) have referred Meta cognition as the "executive control" system of the human mind as higher order cognitions that supervise a person's thoughts, knowledge and actions (Weinert, 1987). Meta cognition describes the awareness and control of one's own thoughts. The basic Meta cognitive strategies are: 1) Connecting new information to former knowledge, 2) Selecting thinking strategies deliberately, and 3) Planning, monitoring, and evaluating thinking processes (Akama, 2006).

Meta cognition has often been conceptualized as comprising two components: knowledge component and regulation component (Brown, 1987; Flavell, 1979). The knowledge component refers to knowing one's cognitive processes, such as knowledge about oneself as a thinker, characteristics of existing task, and about which strategies are required to carry out for effective performance; the regulation component refers to the actual strategies one applies to control cognitive processes such as planning how to approach a task, monitoring, understanding, comprehension, evaluating progress and performance. According to Flavell (1979), Meta cognitive knowledge refers to acquired knowledge that can be used to control cognitive processes, which are to be further divided into three categories. In addition, Brown (1987) added Meta comprehension, i.e. to know that you understood a question as an important category of Meta cognitive knowledge. Through regulation, the individual makes use of such knowledge to modify and improve intellectual performance. That is, Meta cognitive knowledge provides the basis for effective regulation. Thus, the knowledge and the regulation components supplement each other and are both essential for optimal performance (Livingston, 1997; Schraw & Dennison, 1994).

Another distinction that must be made is one that distinguishes Meta cognitive activities from cognitive activities. The border between what is Meta cognitive and what is cognitive has been unclear, and many have acknowledged the two may be mutually dependent on each other and thus cannot be entirely separated (Flavell, 1979; Livingston, 1997; Veenman et al., 2006). Kluwe (1987) refined the concept of Meta cognition by noting two characteristics: the thinker knows something about his/her own and others' thought processes, and the thinker can pay attention to and change his/her thinking. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed


An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.