Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

The Difficulties of Female Primary School Administrators in the Administration Process and Solution Suggestions*

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

The Difficulties of Female Primary School Administrators in the Administration Process and Solution Suggestions*

Article excerpt

In the era of the new millennium, the world has gone into a process of change and improvement. Adapting to the process of change is parallel to the quality and effectiveness of education. The education of women, who compose half of the population and have the fundamental role of raising future generations, is not only a significant prerequisite for adapting to these changes, but also the reason women get good careers. Education causes women to participate more in production and development. More effort should be spent to establish egalitarian attitudes in both educational and social life to educate women and men equally. Otherwise, if the education of women is not given considerable attention, if freedom and rights continue to differ according to sex, countries may have difficulties (Isiksolugu, 1997 as cited in Can, 2008).

In Turkey, employment is one of the most important fields that the government tries to improve. However, women have less of an advantage than men in employment participation. In the Republic period, as soon as the education of women increased, their participation in the labor force also increased. Until the 1970's, although there had been an increase in both participation of women in the labor force and in the number of women that aimed for administrative and professional careers, researchers (Ayan, 2000; Bastug & Çelik, 2011; Brenner & Tomkiewicz, 1982; Çelikten, 2005; Dubno, 1985; Fierman, 1990; Köroglu, 2006; Mizrahi & Araci, 2010; Özkaya, 1988; Peters, Terborg, & Taylor, 1974; Sefer, 1999; Terborg, Peters, Ilgen, & Smith, 1977; Tomkiewicz & Adeyimi-Bello, 1995) found that women started to work in the same conditions and with similar feelings as those of men but afterward their career and professional experiences differed for some reasons.

From past to present, in all periods of life and all levels of society, although women and men have been working together, the contributions they have made have not been valued to the same extent, and women have always stayed in second place. Women working in jobs with low status are regarded as natural. However, it has been very difficult for them to start working in high-status jobs or have rising careers. Women who want to work in high administrative positions all too frequently confront the glass ceiling syndrome. As a result, it can be said that with administrative positions that require greater responsibilities, women are found in the limited numbers (Çelikten, 2004; Ergün, 1996; Shum & Cheng, 1997).

Although women working in the different sectors in Turkey have made advances, it is striking to note the many differences between the roles of women and men (Acuner & Sallan, 1993). There is no forensic obstacle in either the appointment or the elevation of women. Women are as well educated as men, but they cannot have the same opportunities as men.

Since time long past, the education of children and teaching have been seen as suitable professions for women (Apple, 1994). On the other hand, in both high schools and colleges the number of women in higher positions is less than that of men (Blackmore, 1998). From this, it is clearly seen that the administration profession belongs to men (Streitmatter, 1999). Despite the fact that the percentage of female educators working in primary and secondary schools in Turkey is 45%, the rate of the women administrators working in the Ministry of Education has not yet reached 10% (Milli Egitim Bakanligi [MEB], 2005). According to Negiz and Yemen (2011), as the distribution of the sexes is examined in social services, it is seen that 16% of administrators are women while 84% is are men. According to the Grant Thornton research reports of 2012, the percentage of female administrators is up to 31%. Research (Ergün, 1996; Mizrahi & Araci, 2010; Terzioglu & Taskin, 2008) has revealed that there have been some troubles preventing women from being active in the educational administration process despite social improvements and changes. …

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