Academic journal article Journal of Community Positive Practices

Romania - Emigration's Impact on Families and Children

Academic journal article Journal of Community Positive Practices

Romania - Emigration's Impact on Families and Children

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

Migration is a phenomenon which consists of the movement of large numbers of people from one area to another, followed by a change of residence and/or employment upon arrival (Zamfir and Vlasceanu, 1993: 355). The migration is driven by economic, social, political or natural factors. To emigrate is the act of leaving one's country to settle in another country.

After 1989, Romania was confronted with international migration, which resulted in a diminishment of the stable resident population. The country's resident population reached 20.01 million inhabitants on January 1st 2013, approximately equal to that of the year 1969. Between 1989 and 2012 the stable population of Romania decreased by more than 3.1 million. More than 77 % of the negative growth of the resident population (stable) during this period was due to migration. In 2002 the number of migrants per 1,000 inhabitants of the resident population of Romania was 48.6, while in 2012 this indicator increased to 116.5. The largest share of the migrating population is represented by people aged 25-64. In 2012, this age group represented 74% of the total immigration, as opposed to 2002 when this indicator was 65% (Institutul National de Statistica, 2014: 1).

Migration has both positive and negative effects in terms of attitudes as well as on a social level. Among the positive effects are local economic developments, entrepreneurship and increased tolerance in some areas with high migration rate, whereas the negative effects include dependence on revenues from migrant communities, abandoned children, human trafficking. Children are the most affected party in terms of family relationship, school status, public perception, and especially their emotional balance (parting with a parent causes extreme stress, emotional deprivation, shock, etc.).

Parents going abroad (in most cases due to economic factors) may have negative influences on children. Children left in the care of a guardian or worse, left home alone by parents who went to work, to seek a better life in another country will face social problems caused by joining entourages that will have a negative effect on their school results, sometimes culminating in dropping out of school. There may be situations where the migrants who managed to establish themselves in the destination countries take their children to the new foreign households, so that Romania loses an important echelons of children and consequently, social values.

Based on these issues, in this paper we propose an analysis of works and studies on migration and its effects on families and the children left behind. From the methodological point of view, we chose to analyze reports of public or private institutions, studies and articles.

2. Literature rewiew

The total movement of a population consists of natural and migratory movement. The population of a country is not only a result of inputs and outputs that are determined by births and deaths, but also a result of immigration and emigration. Migration can change not only the population but its structure by age, gender, and other characteristics. People can move out of the country or even move countries, for short duration or permanently.

When referring to a national territory, we can talk about internal migration, which concerns people who move into the national territory, but we also talk about foreign or international migration, where the country's population move into another country (Cruceru, 2010). The international migration can be due to natural disasters (forced migration), lack of employment opportunities (labor migration), or reuniting with family members who have migrated previously.

Population migration is the main form of geographical mobility of the population. Residential migration is a permanent relocation to another residential area, with a resulting change in the residential status. The concept of migration does not cover such phenomena as commuting, trips or various seasonal movements etc. …

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