Academic journal article Journal of Management Research

Managerial Competency Models: A Critical Review and Proposed Holistic-Domain Model

Academic journal article Journal of Management Research

Managerial Competency Models: A Critical Review and Proposed Holistic-Domain Model

Article excerpt

Abstract

Major generic managerial competency models located in the literature capture business skills, intra-personal skills, interpersonal skills, and leadership skills as important competencies for effective performance. However, while these competencies are necessary for effective managerial performance, the models do not emphasize career and mentoring skills as important managerial competencies, although conceptual and empirical evidence suggest that they are important for managerial effectiveness. This leaves a gap in managerial competency literature, that is lack of comprehensive and holistic model that captures the key competencies.This paper provides evidence on this gap in the literature by reviewing key competency models :behavioural; functional; job competency; holistic; multi-dimensional; and domain model. It provides evidence on the relevance of career and mentoring skills to managerial effectiveness. The paper then proposes holistic-domain model which appears more comprehensive compared to other models located in extant literature as, in addition to business, intra-personal, interpersonal and leadership skills, it integrates career and mentoring skills.

Keywords: Managerial competence, Competence model, Management development, First-class manager, Meta-competencies, managerial psychology

1. Introduction

Key generic managerial competency models located in the literature capture business skills, intra-personal skills; interpersonal skills; and leadership skills as important for effective managerial performance. However, while these competencies are necessary for effective managerial performance, the models do not emphasize career and mentoring skills as important managerial competencies. However, a critical review of the managerial competency literature indicates that career and mentoring skills are important for effective managerial performance. This leaves a gap in managerial competency literature; the development of a comprehensive and holistic domain model which captures career and mentoring skills as additional competencies. This paper addresses the gap in the literature by proposing a holistic-domain model of managerial competency with expanded domain as it captures six key domains essential for managerial performance: business, intra-personal, interpersonal, leadership, career and mentoring skills. Firstly, the paper examines the concept and historical development of managerial competence, and highlights the differences between core and generic competences. Secondly, the paper provides evidence on the gap in managerial competency models by reviewing key generic competency models located in the literature in turns: behavioural (Boyatzis, 1982, 2008, 2009; McCleland, 1973, 1998); functional (Knasel & Meed, 1994; job competency(Mansfield & Mathews, 1985); holistic (Cheetham & Chivers, 1996, 1998); multi-dimensional(Le Deist et al., 2005); and the domain model(Hogan & Warrenfeltz, 2003) highlighting the strengths and weaknesses in each model, and how they all ignore career and mentoring skills. Thirdly, evidence on the relationships between career skills, mentoring skills and managerial effectiveness is provided. Fourthly, drawing on the review, on conceptual and empirical grounds, the paper then proposes an extended holistic-domain model which has enhanced explanatory power compared to other models as it integrates career and mentoring skills with business, intra-personal, interpersonal and leadership skills. It provides taxonomy of the key elements in the model, the behavioural indicators, and the protocol for measuring and assessing the skills. Finally, theoretical, practical and research implications of the model for human resources practitioners, academic and researchers are provided.

2. The Concept and Historical Development of Managerial Competence

White (1959) was the first to use the term 'competence' precisely to describe personality characteristics, in particular, scholastic intelligence/cognitive intelligence associated with high motivation and superior performance at work. …

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