Academic journal article Journal of Social Welfare and Management

Demographic and Economic Status of Scheduled Tribes in Andhra Pradesh: A Study of Jatapu Tribe in Seethammapeta Mandal in Srikakulam District

Academic journal article Journal of Social Welfare and Management

Demographic and Economic Status of Scheduled Tribes in Andhra Pradesh: A Study of Jatapu Tribe in Seethammapeta Mandal in Srikakulam District

Article excerpt

Introduction

The tribes generally have a group of families living together and these groups have pre-historic economy, with several rituals and customs. Certain tribal languages have no script except speech. They live in interior forest areas far away from the civilized world. They have slash burn cultivation and hunting of the wild animals as the way of life. They have a common religion, common customs and live as a community. In general tribes are of peculiar type of people living all over the world. Agriculture is the prime and predominant occupation of tribals and the culture of the tribal communities is reflected in their agricultural practices. The agro-climatic conditions and the resource potentialities differ from one tribal area to another. This is due to the nature of soil, fertility, availability of water etc. Due to prevalence of unemployment and underemployment, agriculture alone cannot sustain them throughout the year. So the tribals must rely on labour works and the forest produce which occupies and play an important role in their daily life. Hence the tribal economy may rightly be called as agro forest based economy. The isolated location of the tribes from the main stream of life is hindering their economic activities. The illiteracy among the tribals and the rich forest produce tempted the money lenders and small traders to exploit the tribals. India ranks the second in having the tribal concentration in the world next only to Africa. India holds unique position in the concentration of tribal communities. There are about 532 scheduled tribes in India. They speak about 100 languages and 255 subsidiary languages.

The growth rates of scheduled tribe population in Andhra Pradesh are 5.47, 2.24, 6.50, 2.79 and 3.01 for the years 1951, 1961, 1971,1981,1991 and 2001 respectively. Except 1961 and 1991, the decadal growth rate of tribal population is more than the growth rate of general population. From 1951 to 2001 the tribal population has increased by five times but for the general population it is only 1.5 times.

The tribal villages are inhabited by different variety of tribes. The important tribes are Gonds, Andhs, Thothis, and Kolanes in Adilabad district. Koya, Konda Reddies, Naikpads in Khammam, Warangal and Godavari districts. Bagatha, Valmiki, Kondhs and Jatapus in the districts of north coastal Andhra Pradesh. Chenchus in the pockets of Mahaboob Nagar, Kurnool and Prakasam Distincts. The social structure of the various tribal groups resemble with each other tribal groups. It is due to their similar clan organizati3ons. The social practices, customs, beliefs and code of conduct are very nearer to each other tribal groups. Almost all the tribal groups in Andhra Pradesh eat cooked food. Some tribes in higher community status generally do not accept cooked food from other tribal communities who have lower than their status The tribal economy is with very poor economic conditions and almost intertwined with the social phenomena.

Methodology

The primary data comprise of collecting information during the month of June and July of 2010 from the selected sample tribal households in the tribal areas the multi stage stratified random sampling method was used for the study. There were four stages in which sampling process was carried out. The first stage was selection of district, the second stage consisted of selection of mandai, the third stage consisted of selection of villages and the forth stage was of selection of households. Out of the nine districts of Andhra Pradesh which have concentration of tribal population Srikakulam District was selected.

The second stage of sample consisted of selection of mandai. The selected Seethampeta is only the tribal concentrated mandai out of 37 mandais of Srikakulam district. Out of 37, 19 mandais had tribal population in Srikakulam district, with a total of 11, 9304 tribal population. Seethampeta alone is having 40, 189 tribal population (33. …

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