Academic journal article Contemporary Management Research

Entrepreneurial Intention and Outcome Expectancy: Evidence from South Korea and China

Academic journal article Contemporary Management Research

Entrepreneurial Intention and Outcome Expectancy: Evidence from South Korea and China

Article excerpt

ABSTRACT

Focusing on the East Asian context, this study examines (1) cultural and gender differences in entrepreneurial intention, (2) the mediating effects of culture and gender on the relationships between entrepreneurial intention and expectancies of positive entrepreneurial outcomes, and (3) the results of entrepreneurial intention of females. The findings reveal that while Chinese students have a greater entrepreneurial intention than South Korean students, the relationships between entrepreneurial intention and outcome expectancies are stronger in South Korean than in Chinese students. In terms of gender, males have a greater entrepreneurial intention than females. The relationships between entrepreneurial intention and outcome expectancies are stronger in male than in female students. Social status and self-realization are the entrepreneurial outcomes that females value most.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Intention, Desired Entrepreneurial Outcomes, Cultural Difference, Gender Difference

INTRODUCTION

Entrepreneurial intention arguably plays an important role in the decision to create a business (Liñán & Chen, 2009). Research has shown that many factors such as need for achievement, propensity to take risk, tolerance for ambiguity, locus of control, self-efficacy, and egoistic passion, can affect a person's intention to engage in entrepreneurial activities, (Shane, Locke, & Collins, 2003). These motivational factors for entrepreneurship have also been suggested to vary among human groups (Haus, Steinmetz, Isidor, & Kabst, 2013; Liñán & Chen, 2009). Although this stream of research has contributed to the entrepreneurial literature, several areas need to be improved.

The first area is the focus. Although most of the research on entrepreneurial motivation research focuses on the influence of motivational factors on entrepreneurial intention, only a few studies (e.g., Gatewood, 1993; Manolova, Brush, & Edelman, 2008) have specifically examined the extent to which a person's entrepreneurial intentions predict his or her valued outcomes of entrepreneurship. Although desired outcomes are considered to be components of motivation in entrepreneurship (Shane et al., 2003), further investigations of what outcomes are expected among people with different degrees of entrepreneurial intention will provide additional perspectives on entrepreneurial motivations (Gatewood, Shaver, Powers, & Gartner, 2002; Manolova et al., 2008).

The second area is the body of evidence. The current literature on entrepreneurial motivation needs more extensive cross-cultural evidence (Verheul, Stel, & Thurik, 2006). Among the studies in this area, the majority compared countries from different cultural clusters (for society cluster classification, see Gupta, Hanges, & Dorfman, 2002). For example, Liñán, Nabi, and Krueger (2013), who investigated undergraduates from Spain (a Latin European culture) and Britain (an Anglo-Saxon culture), found that while personal attitudes have a stronger effect on entrepreneurial intention in Spain, the perceived behavioral control is more likely to influence entrepreneurial intention in Britain. In another study, Liñán and Chen (2009) showed that the motivations of entrepreneurial intention differed in Spain and Taiwan (a Confucian Asian culture). However, it remains unclear whether and how the motivations, and by extension, the desired outcomes, for entrepreneurial-oriented individuals differ among countries from the same cultural cluster.

The third area is gender issues in entrepreneurial intention studies. More women than ever are now choosing entrepreneurship as a career (Jalbert, 2000). Wilson, Kickul, and Marlino (2007) argue that the current trends mask the worldwide tendency for men to have a more entrepreneurial orientation than women. Given that numerous studies still demonstrate a higher entrepreneurial intention among men than among women (e. …

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