Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

Mindfulness, Hardiness, Perceived Stress among Engineering and BDS Students

Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

Mindfulness, Hardiness, Perceived Stress among Engineering and BDS Students

Article excerpt

In earlier times, India has its own unique structured and well-established methodology in education that aimedto enable individuals to flourish and transforms their mind, body and soul which help the individual to know thyself. It is not merely acquiring information, it is emphasis about developing power of mind (i.e. concentration, memory, reasoning, etc.), emotional development (i.e. sensitivity, compassion, joy, empathy, etc.), having high moral values, and a strong inclination towards over all well-being. In contrary,education in post-modern society have witnessed a growing portion of adolescents experiencing a myriad of social, emotional, andbehavioral problems that interfere with their interpersonal relationships, academic success, and their potential to become competent adults and productive citizens (Greenberg et al., 2003).A growing body of literature states that students pursuing in professional such as engineering, medical, dental are engulfed by higher amount of stress (Radcliffe, & Lester, 2003).

Further, examinations are more difficult as they have targets for higher performance, massive syllabus, competitive environment, lack of peer support, stipulated time, rigid authorities, mismatch between capacity and expectation are found to be potential sources of stress among medical and engineering college students (Schneider, 2007; Foster & Spencer, 2003). Added to this are the practicáis or extracurricular activities, which are closely monitored and upon which academic scores are partially based. Moreover, students are over-loaded witha huge amount of information that pertain to the academic programleaves minimal opportunity to relax or recreate (Sherina, Rampai, & Kaneson, 2004). As a result, it mounts an excessive amount of stress, in turn, increase the prevalence of psychological problems like impaired judgment, reduced concentration, loss of self-esteem, rejection, depression, anxiety, substance abuse and suicide ideation (Lindsay, 2009; Arria et al., 2006; Bansal & Bhave, 2006). Research studies on resilience highlighted that the association between life stress and coping resources to feelings of ill-being and well-being are the function of the internal strength of the individuals (Heckman & Clay, 2005; Dohrenwend, 2000). Some of the key internal factors such as mindfulness, hardiness, self-esteem, self-efficacy, optimism, etc., are found to have a positive impact on protecting psychological health by withstanding occupational stress. Ciarrochi et al. (2000) highlighted that internal resources may protect people from stress and lead to better adaptation.

In recent days, mindfulness has been identified as beneficial to well-being andwhich has received increasing attention across numerous academic and clinical arena (Kabat-Zinn 2003; Siegel 2007). Mindfulness is considered to be a state of consciousness that incorporates self-awareness and attention with core characteristics of beingopen, receptive, and non-judgment (Brown & Ryan 2003; Kabat-Zinn 1990; Segal et al. 2002). A furtherconceptualization of mindfulness posited by Brown and Ryan (2003) concerns an enhanced awareness and attentionof the present reality or current activity. This implies that, if students are learn to be "fully-present", they can increase the quality of their learning performance by being more focused, and become capable to deal with the academic stressful situation. Mindfulness enables the adults to approach the learning situations from a novel perspective. Further, it can be stated that mindfulness as a cognitive state, in which the individual's propensity and opportunity to continually process information from various perspectives can add to one's own knowledge and increase the levels of creativity. When students use mindfulness in their learning processes, they utilize creativity, experience cognitive flexibility, and are able to better use information to enhance memory for instructional retention. As a result, students tend to have high optimism, positive state, and feel more in control of their lives (Thornton & McEntee, 1995). …

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