Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

Associating Beck's Cognitive Behaviour Therapy with Progressive Muscular Relaxation Technique in Treatment of Major Depression: A Case Report

Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

Associating Beck's Cognitive Behaviour Therapy with Progressive Muscular Relaxation Technique in Treatment of Major Depression: A Case Report

Article excerpt

In this cut throat era of competition every person wants to achieve his goal immediately either to fulfillment the other's expectations or to make his dreams through consciously or unconsciously. They suffered by tension, stress anxiety and depression. The resulting continuous stress on their physical, psychological and social resources has led to the development of various psychological disorder.

The term 'Depression' covers a variety of negative moods and behavior changes. Depression has been recognized as a mood disorder in DSM-III(R) 1987 classification, and now DSM-IV TR is a recent version of DSM classification and its divides mood disorder into three general types. The main types of mood disorder are Depressive disorder' and 'Bipolar Disorder1. Each of these types reflects a disturbance in mood or emotional reaction that is not due to any otherphysical ormental disorder. Major depression significantly affects a person's family and personal relationships, work or school life, sleeping and eating habits, and general health. Its impact on functioning and well-being has been compared to that of chronic medical conditions such as diabetes.

A person having a major depressive episode usually exhibits a very low mood, which pervades all aspects of life, and an inability to experience pleasure in activities that were formerly enjoyed. Depressed people may be preoccupied with, or ruminate over, thoughts and feelings of worthlessness, inappropriate guilt or regret, helplessness, hopelessness, and self-hatred. In severe cases, depressed people may have symptoms of psychosis. These symptoms include delusions or , less commonly, hallucinations, usually unpleasant. Other symptoms of depression include poor concentration and memory (especially in those with melancholic or psychotic features), withdrawal from social situations and activities, reduced sex drive, and thoughts of death or suicide. Insomnia is common among the depressed. In the typical pattem, a person wakes very early and cannot get back to sleep Insomnia affects at least 80% of depressed people. Hypersomnia, or oversleeping, can also happen. Some antidepressants may also cause insomnia due to their stimulating effect.

A depressed person may report multiple physical symptoms such as fatigue, headaches, or digestive problems; physical complaints are the most common presenting problem in developing countries, according to the World Health Organization's criteria for depression. Appetite often decreases, with resulting weight loss, although increased appetite and weight gain occasionally occur. Family and friends may notice that the person's behavior is either agitated or lethargic. Older depressed people may have cognitive symptoms of recent onset, such as forgetfulness, and a more noticeable slowing of movements. Depression often coexists with physical disorders common among the elderly, such as stroke, other cardiovascular diseases, Parkinson's disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Epidemiology

According to Alexander, Holtzworth and Jameson, (1994), depression is a major cause of morbidity. They believed that its currently affect approximately 298 million people as of 2012 (4.3% of the global population). Lifetime prevalence varies widely, from 3% in Japan to 17% in the US. In most countries the number of people who have depression during their lives falls within an 812% range. In India the probability of having a major depressive episode within a year-long period is 35% for males and 810% for females. Population studies have consistently shown major depression to be about twice as common in women as in men, although it is unclear why this is so, and whether factors unaccounted for are contributing to this. The relative increase in occurrence is related to pubertal development rather than chronological age, reaches adult ratios between the ages of 15 and 18, and appears associated with psychosocial more than hormonal factors.

People are most likely to suffer their first depressive episode between the ages of 30 and 40, and there is a second, smaller peak of incidence between ages 50 and 60. …

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