Academic journal article International Education Studies

An Analysis of Minimum Service Standards (MSS) in Basic Education: A Case Study at Magelang Municipality, Central Java, Indonesia

Academic journal article International Education Studies

An Analysis of Minimum Service Standards (MSS) in Basic Education: A Case Study at Magelang Municipality, Central Java, Indonesia

Article excerpt


The study aims at analyzing the achievement of Minimum Service Standards (MSS) in Basic Education through a case study at Magelang Municipality. The findings shall be used as a starting point to predict the needs to meet MMS by 2015 and to provide strategies for achievement. Both primary and secondary data were used in the study investigating the gap between the real achievements and the standards as set out in MMS in terms of the number of schools and classrooms, support facilities, teachers, education staff, including books and teaching media. A little bit of non-personnel budgeting was also observed to be matched with the standards as set out by Education Ministry No. 69/2009. It turned out that classrooms and teachers outnumbered in Magelang with reference to the distribution of students and teachers according to national MMS even seemingly a waste of money. Teachers were abundant 2010 and would remain as such in 2015. Classrooms for Elementary Schools would be sufficient up to 2015, and six additional classrooms would be needed for Junior High Schools. However teachers' qualifications were far from fulfilling MMS including the school principals. There lacked support facilities including books and teaching media. Meanwhile non-personnel budgets were low including allocation of funds for school supplies. Therefore, it is high time that City Government prioritized 9-year-obligatory education by redistribution of students and teachers, improvement of teachers' qualifications, upgrade of school facilities in accordance with MMS and improved efficiency of school budgets.

Keywords: basic education, minimum service standards, teachers' qualifications, school facilities

1. Introduction

The Government of the Republic of Indonesia has stipulated the implementation of 9-year obligatory education under Law No. 20 / 2003 and further specified in Government Regulations No. 47 / 2008 in which central and local governments shall provide the basic education (6-year elementary school (SD) and 3-year junior high school (SMP)) free of charge for children aged 7 to 12. It is also a manifestation of Indonesian Constitution 1945 as stipulated in Article 31 that each citizen has the right for education. For this purpose, the local government has launched BOS (School Operational Fund) program to be given to state-owned SD and SMP throughout Indonesia in support of education for free or at least for lower school fees. The problem is whether or not such a program has touched the poor. Often times (Fitrie, 2013) the poor was victimized by the school management by the presence of the School Committee which seems not to support the poor in the sense that they collect money from the community as they wish, claiming that there has been a unanimous decision over how much each student shall pay for admission. At present, there are of course few state schools which rely heavily on BOS and thus require no payment from the students. The funds are managed in such a way to make both ends meet. This has, however, resulted in poor quality education.

1.1 Decentralized Basic Education (DBE)

DBE aims at providing education in accordance with the school capacity since there are varieties of schools in terms of location, facilities, and human resources. Thus, each school is given freedom of management. There is a wide gap between school for the poor and that for the rich, resulting in poor and good quality education. Still another problem is that some of the school management are craving for money and ignorant of the community's monetary crisis. In other words, free education remains a dream; there is always fund raising for one cause or another. Haryati (2014) concluded that fully-accredited schools did not always comply with the standards set by the school accreditation board. Similar studies (Herwin, 2012; Yulmarses, 2011) reported an academic research (thesis) on the education at Sangir sub-district Solok Selatan district and Pariaman Municipality that the gap between the reality and the criteria set up in MSS reflected in poor education services. …

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