Academic journal article International Journal of Marketing Studies

A Model of Green Consumption Behavior Constructed by the Theory of Planned Behavior

Academic journal article International Journal of Marketing Studies

A Model of Green Consumption Behavior Constructed by the Theory of Planned Behavior

Article excerpt

Abstract

In recent years, global warming has become a widespread well-publicized issue. As the general public have become aware of the importance of protecting the environment, consumers have started to evidence a marked preference for green products. This study constructed a model describing the relationships among perceived benefit of green consumption behavior, perceived risk, moral responsibility, normative belief, control strength, control belief, attitude, subjective norms, behavior control, behavior intention, and actual behavior.

An analysis of 560 valid questionnaires resulted in six main findings: (1) Perceived benefit of green consumption has a significantly positive impact on consumer attitude. (2) Perceived risk of green consumption has a significantly negative impact on consumer attitude. (3) Normative belief and moral responsibility both have significantly positive impacts on consumer subjective norms. (4) Control strength and control belief both have significantly positive impacts on consumer behavior control. (5) Attitude, subjective norms and behavior control both have significantly positive impacts on consumer behavior intention. (6) Behavioral intention and behavior control both have significantly positive impacts on actual consumer behavior. The results of this study provide reference to industry managers in the formulation of green marketing strategy.

Keywords: green consumption behavior, theory of planned behavior

1. Introduction

Pursuit of economic growth has led to severe damage to the environment. Kates (2000) pointed out that the over-exploitation of natural resources has had a significantly negative impact and is the result of the population explosion and the corresponding leap in consumption. McDougally (1993) argues that environmental destruction is principally caused by over-consumption, making green consumption the key to sustainable development (Goldblatt, 2005; Peattie, 1992). To reduce the destruction caused by consumerism, Kates (2000) proposed the 3R principle: reduce, reuse, and recycle. Ottman (1993) goes so far as to suggest that green consumption could be the trigger for a worldwide green revolution. Therefore the consumer has a critical role to play in environmental protection.

Green consumption is not a result of statutory control. Rather, it arises from the values held by the consumer. Chan (1999) found that green consumption behavior is significantly related to concern for the environment and behavioral intentions, and that green consciousness and the promotion of environmental protection and green consumption by the government are both effective predictors of green consumption behavior. Thus, education of the consumer can lead to changes in consumption behavior and the incorporation of green choices into his/her daily life. Entrepreneurial marketing can serve to fulfill this function and go a long way towards shaping environmentally sustainable economic development (Sarma, Septiani, Dewi & Siregar, 2013).

According to the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) proposed by Ajzen (2002), behavioral intention is an important predictor of actual behavior. Behavioral intention is influenced by the following three factors: attitude, subjective norm, and behavioral control. Attitude is influenced by behavioral belief and outcome evaluation; subjective norm is influenced by normative belief and motivation; perceived behavioral control (PBC) is influenced by control belief and control strength. These factors work together to form a complete theoretical framework for predicting human behavior.

This study applied the above framework to explore the green consciousness of consumers and the way it affects purchasing behavior. By using perceived benefit, perceived risk, normative belief, moral obligation, control strength, and control belief as independent variables, attitude, subjective norm, PBC, and behavioral control as mediators, and actual behavior as the dependent variable, this study aimed to develop a relationship model of green consumption behavior. …

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