Academic journal article Asian Social Science

New Approaches to Managing Labor Migration under Integration in Eurasec

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

New Approaches to Managing Labor Migration under Integration in Eurasec

Article excerpt

Abstract

This paper deals with features of labour migration in countries of the Eurasian migration subsystem. A description of migration patterns in Central Asian countries is given. The author captures the tendency of forming the Russia-Central Asia migration subsystem, which is typified by the strong flows of migration and their stable geographical focus. Socio-economic consequences of migration are shown for receiving and sending countries. Monitoring gives grounds to assert that remittances do not affect medium and long-term development of economies of donor labour countries (the effect of "short money"). A serious humanitarian aspect of the problem of labour migration is existing. The analysis of materials indicates the actual formation of a forced labour segment in certain sectors of the Russian economy. Migrant workers live in poor housing conditions; they are discriminated and receive low wages. Currently, regulation of labour migration in the group of countries occurs in isolation and often asynchronously, which leads to discord in the regulation of labour migration. Regulation of labour migration processes does not occur in a coherent manner, even in the Customs Union and the Eurasian Economic Community. Russia and Kazakhstan as the main receiving countries of cheap labour take spontaneous attempts to regulate the number and quality of workers. However, steps of receiving governments are often highly politicized and aimed at unreasonable restrictions. Labour migration must and may be one of the main means of regulating the labour market of the Eurasian Economic Community. The author proposes to apply the approach to its regulation, differentiated by sectors, to enhance the effectiveness of employment and labour migration in the EEC. The main point of the approach is to divide the policy in respect of two sectors: "tradable" and "non-tradable" goods/services. With increasing and effective use of Russian investments to build agricultural production in the major labour donor countries, we can be expect a reduction of the inflow of illegal migrants to Russia and Kazakhstan.

Keywords: labour migration, the Eurasian Economic Community (EEC), the Eurasian Economic Space (CES), the Customs Union, migration patterns, remittances, migration policy, Russia, Central Asia

1. Introduction

Economic integration of the Eurasian Economic Community is one of the main resources of strategic interaction of the EEA countries, as well as Kyrgyzstan, Armenia and Tajikistan. In 2013 President Vladimir Putin also proposed to include Vietnam into this group. Economic integration is the basis for the development of labour migration between the member countries of the association. Labour migration originated and developed based on a set of factors: cultural and historical; infrastructural and geographical; economic; social and demographic. In the group Russia and Kazakhstan are the recipients (receiving countries), other states-donors of migrant workers. Labour migration is a form of real socio-economic cooperation between the countries of the post-Soviet space; it contributes to unification of countries (integration) (Ludema, 1997; Riazantsev, 2007; Niagard et al., 2005; Karabulatova & Polivara, 2013; Schamiloglu, 2006). Economic integration of the countries also promotes liberalization of foreign trade, which in turn later leads to increased migration exchange between the member countries of the group.

Between Russia and Kazakhstan on the one hand and the countries of Central Asia on the other hand a migration subsystem created, specified by large-scale flows of migration and a persistent geographic focus. The main flow of labour migrants to Russia and Kazakhstan during the last decades comes from Central Asian states. In addition, labour migration "intertwines" and transforms into other forms (migration for permanent residence, marriage migration, educational migration). Increasingly, temporary labour migrants from Central Asia receive Russian citizenship and remain for permanent residence in the Russian Federation. …

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