Academic journal article The Indonesian Journal of Geography

Ethnic Concentration Areas in Neighbourhood Perspective in Enschede, the Netherlands

Academic journal article The Indonesian Journal of Geography

Ethnic Concentration Areas in Neighbourhood Perspective in Enschede, the Netherlands

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

Many government European cities are cha- racterized by the diversity of ethnic groups and their spatial concentration. Ethnic immigrants started to arrive to the European Union since the open door policy of the 1950s [Edgar, Doherty, and Meert, 2004] and they mostly came from developing countries. In the Netherlands, the influx of Turkish and Moroccan immigrants (among others) in older industrial cities happened due to the demand for unskilled work [Blauw, 1991]. While well-trained native Dutch refused to take the jobs, labour immigrants saw them as opportunities for well-paid jobs that were unavailable in their home countries. These ethnic immigrants settled in di- fferent parts of the urban area but tended to concentrate in just a few neighbour- hoods. This spatial concentration is usually referred as residential segregation parti- cularly when an ethnic group live to some degree separated from the rest of popu- lation [Yang, 2000]. Even though ethnic segregation level is more modest in Europe compared to the US, the number of ethnic member is still increasing in Eu- ropean cities [Edgar et al., 2004; Musterd, 2005]. For example in Enschede, the Ne- therlands, the growth of ethnic immigrants in 1997 to 2009 is higher than the growth of Native Dutch. Turkish has grown 22.7%, Moroccan has grown 21.49% while Dutch has grown 0.39% [Enschede Municipality, 2012].

One of the reasons for the attention given to issues of ethnic segregation relate to how a better understanding of this pheno- menon can better inform (or discourage) policies aiming at mixing ethnic popu- lations. The Netherlands made several attempts to apply mix neighbourhood poli- cies to spread migrant households more evenly by mixing different tenures and price level within the same development or area. [Bolt, 2009; Galster, 2007; Ireland, 2008; Musterd and Andersson, 2005]. Urban renewal becomes one of the stra- tegic actions to combat negative effect of ethnic segregation. However, there are counter arguments in applying the policy [Ostendorf, Musterd, and Vos, 2001; Van Eijk, 2010].

The analysis of ethnic segregation was ori- ginated by measuring segregation at city level summarizing the residential segre- gation phenomenon for the entire city into a single value. The most widely used mea- surement is the Dissimilarity Index [Cortese, Falk, and Cohen, 1976; Duncan and Duncan, 1955; Massey and Denton, 1987]. These measurements at city level are useful for comparing degree of segre- gation between cities (inter urban compa- risons) or examining trends of residential segregation [Grbic, Ishizawa, and Crothers, 2010; Massey and Denton, 1987]

Other approach instead of calculating se- gregation at city level, proposed a segre- gation index at sub-city level to capture the variability within a city (intra urban comparisons) [Brown and Chung, 2006; Deurloo and Musterd, 1998, 2001]. The concept ethnic concentration is usually used at sub-city level when a single areal unit has an overrepresentation of a certain ethnic group [Deurloo and Musterd, 1998, 2001; PBL, 2010]. Other authors di- stinguish between global and local indices instead of city and sub-city measurements [Feitosa, Camara, Monteiro, Koschitzki, and Silva, 2007; Wong, 1996]. Analysing segregation at a disaggregated level can provide understanding of ethnic segre- gation processes by identifying local va- riations. It recognizes variation of segre- gation among areal units such as blocks, census tract, postcode, or district, parti- cularly in areas with significant segre- gation.

In reality, ethnic concentration is a conti- nuous phenomenon where each individual member is distributed across the city. Members of ethnic groups live in a neigh- bourhood and interact without being limited by its areal unit or administrative boundaries. Therefore, and despite that the available data on ethnicity is discrete, measuring ethnic concentration only wi- thin a single unit ignores the influence of neighbouring areas. …

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