Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

The Relation of Parental Attitudes to Life Satisfaction and Depression in Early Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

The Relation of Parental Attitudes to Life Satisfaction and Depression in Early Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

Article excerpt

Adolescence is a period that rapid and various changes occur. In this period these changes affect adolescents 'lives and relations with others (Jackson, 1993). Teenagers are in dispute with their parents on topics such as clothing, choice of friends, getting permission, studying. Conflicts may vary according to parental attitudes. On one hand while some parents are warm and accepting some parents may be rigid and authoritative. Maccoby and Martin (1983) determined four types of parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful. Authoritative parents are understanding but disciplined in child development, on the other hand; authoritarian parents have a rigid, obedient, and insistent style of discipline. Neglectful parents have inadequate interaction with their children and are insensitive to their children's needs. Indulgent parents are accepting, and support their children's autonomy according to Maccoby and Martin (1983) (as cited in Darling & Steinberg, 1993, p. 491; Steinberg, 2007, pp. 158-159). It is possible that authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful parenting styles have different effects children's emotions and behaviors. This effect may influence the children's everyday behaviors and even general life satisfaction. Satisfaction with life is described as experiencing positive emotions more often and experiencing less negative emotions (Diener & Lucas 1999), and evaluating one's life according to a criterion (Pavot & Diener 1993). High life satisfaction results in positive experiences for an individual in a lot of ways. For instance, teenagers with high life satisfaction may have consistent functionality (Gilman & Huebner, 2006) and good mental health (Gilman et al., 2008). Life satisfaction in children and teenagers can be affected by various factors such as family, friendship (Suldo & Huebner, 2006), income (Oishi, Diener, Lucas, & Suh, 1999), family conformity and positive parental relations (Rask, Astendt-Kurki, Paavilainen, & Laippala, 2003; Young, Miller, Norton, & Hill, 1995) family nonconformity and negative parental relations (Levin, Dallago, & Currie, 2012; Oberle, Schonert-Reichl, & Zumbo, 2011). Another factor that affects satisfaction with life is self-esteem. Rosenberg defines self-esteem as one's positive or negative self-perception (Mruk, 2006, p. 11). There are quite a few studies on the positive correlation between life satisfaction and self-esteem (Diener & Diener, 1995; Kap?k?ran, 2013; Lai, Bond, & Hui, 2007; Leung, McBride-Chang, & Lai, 2005; Zhang & Leung 2002). Nonetheless, positive or negative parental attitudes affect self-esteem (Frank, Plunket, & Otten, 2010; Koydemir-Özden & Demir, 2009; Liem, Cavell, & Lusting, 2010, McKinney, Donnelly, & Renk, 2008, Plunkett Henry, Robinson, Behnke, & Falcon, 2007; Rudy & Grusec, 2006). As a result of positive or negative parental attitude affecting self-esteem positively or negatively children's satisfaction with life is expected to be affected. These circumstances may affect mental health affirmatively or adversely. For instance, in a study conducted with adolescents, the findings indicated that low level affectionate behavior by parents increases depression (Kim & Cain, 2008). Various studies show that high levels of controlling parental behaviors and depression are positively correlated (Kim & Cain, 2008; Masumi et al., 2002; McKinney et al., 2008; Muris, Meesters, Schouten, & Hoge, 2004; Perris et al., 1986; Tein, Roosa, & Michaels, 1994). On the other hand, children's depressive symptoms decreased when they received positively increased emotional behavior from their mothers (Yap, Allen, & Ladouceur, 2008). While cordial parental behavior is related to low levels of depression, hostile behavior could be related to high levels of depression (Ge, Best, Conger, & Simons, 1996). Whereas, teenagers who have mothers that support autonomy, showed low depression symptoms (Allen, Insabella, Porter, Smith, Land, & Phillips, 2006; Liem et al. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.