Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Rapid Urbanization-Its Impact on Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Udon Thani, Thailand

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Rapid Urbanization-Its Impact on Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Udon Thani, Thailand

Article excerpt

Abstract

This article focused on the pattern of land-use change based on urbanization and the impacts of land-use change on the local community in Udon Thani. Udon Thani was selected as a case study in this article because the rapid growth rate of the city was higher than that of other cities in decades. The study was conducted by satellite images analysis in order to compare the Udon Thani municipality and the suburban areas from 1989-2014. Group discussion was used with representatives from local communities, government sectors, and private sectors. Results revealed that the urbanization process has been settled based on both push and pull factors. Push factors consisted of the expectation of mral people in employment and income. Pull factors consisted of the expansion of the industrial sector, particularly in service and retail sectors, which affected the land-use change in the Central Business District (CBD) and surrounding communities. In addition, impacts of land-use changes on the community were found from several perspectives, including the economic, social, and environmental perspectives.

Keywords: urbanization, land-use changes, sustainable cities, Udon Thani

1. Introduction

Development approach in past decades primarily focused on the growth of economic which was centralized and generated by government and private sector based on capitalism. Infrastructural development would be priority that was applied on modernization process which focused only on quantitative development. Therefore, Western countries or developed countries got widely involve in generating patterns of development, and passed on their development patterns to the developing country. This phenomenon had a critical role in developing world society and the capitalism. So the developing country seems to mn development pattem as the dependency development which was consequent on many problems in developing country.

Urbanization is a phenomenon that was introduced at the end of World War II. Urbanization has become a key factor that influences city development in major Asian cities. City development has developed from urbanization in various perspectives, especially economic and industrial perspectives, which were focused on. The development resulted in rapid economic and industrial growth, as the city was interested in many investment plans from national and international investors. However, the urbanization-based development also impacted the city. Urbanization currently is generating problems for the city. People from various places migrate to seek work and a better life in major cities more and more. Social and environmental problems also were discussed. City administrators cannot manage city problems that are impacting the city rapidly. Some call this phenomenon an "over urbanization."

The growth of urbanization caused a new type of production in the modem economy, which generated a pull factor for surplus labor in the agricultural sector and transformed cities into an industrial labor sector. Although urban development and economic growth in Asian countries were different from that in European countries or the United States in terms of the balance between the mral and urban populations and economic growth, the phenomenon of migration from mral to urban areas was still occurring due to high levels of productivity in the city, which was higher than in the mral areas. High levels of productivity became a pull factor, which resulted in an increasing population in the urban areas of Asia as well as within developing countries. In addition, poverty in the rural areas, the invasion of capitalism into mral areas, and mral living, which was infiltrated by consumerism, forced mral people to change their living patterns; for instance, the land was transferred to capitalists for industrial activities. These were the pull factors, which accelerated migration to the city. Though it was thought that the movement of people would lead to the development of the industrial sector, it actually caused numerous infrastructural, social, and environmental problems. …

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