Academic journal article International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health

Aggression among Chandigarh High School Students: To Know the Prevalence and Level of Aggression in Terms of Gender

Academic journal article International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health

Aggression among Chandigarh High School Students: To Know the Prevalence and Level of Aggression in Terms of Gender

Article excerpt

Introduction

Adolescence is viewed as a period during which biological, cognitive, emotional and social changes and development takes place. Because of reorganization in all of the developmental areas, young children face various behavioral of adjustment problems (1). It is often assumed that this is a difficult period of life, with the adolescents being at risk of high stress, since they have to cope with enormous changes. Some of these changes are in the physical and sexual behavior following puberty, some of the social and financial area, and some relate to decisions about the future .Thus, this period is certainly a period of change in which the adolescents are burdened by various pressures (2).

It is very important that adolescents pass through this stage successful otherwise problems may occur that may further lead to the formation of various kinds of deviant behavior like aggression, drug and alcohol use. Erikson (3) further argues that adolescents typically experience diffusion, a strong sense of uncertainty and need to achieve a sense of identity. But at this phase of life they find it hard to do this and are always perturbed about who they are and what their future will be? Such unanswered questions might lead to frustration and aggressive behavior among the adolescents (4,5).

Further, biological or hormonal changes in adolescents (increased level of androgen and testosterone) are also associated with behavioral problems like rebelliousness, talking back to adults, and fighting with classmates (6).

Thus, emphasizing upon the critical nature of adolescent stage, it is apparent that adolescence and aggression cannot be separated. Many studies tracing the problems of adolescence over several decades have shown an increase in the rate of aggression among the adolescents (7).

Aggression is defined as physical or verbal behavior intended to harm. Aggression can either be directed inward by self-mutilation or directed outwardly at another person. Aggressive behavior is often used to claim status, precedents or access to an object or territory (8). According to Eysenck (2), two kinds of aggression are identified namely, person oriented and instrumental aggression. Person oriented aggression is designed to hurt someone else were causing harm in the main goal. In contrast, instrumental aggression has its main goal in obtaining some desired reward with aggression. Another category of aggression is based on the initiator of the aggression.

Proactive aggression is aggressive behavior that is initiated by the individual to achieve some desired outcomes whereas reactive aggression in an individual reaction to someone else aggression.

These distinctions clearly revealed that aggression is not simple but a complicated aspect .It is not a single idea but it is of various types such as physical or verbal aggression.

Physical aggression

As the word indicates physical aggression is any response that produces or is intended to produce physical injury or physical pain in the victim or damage to an object. It involves the acts of hitting and kicking (9). The large body mass or higher physical development among the early adolescents is also an important predictor of the growing physical aggression among them. This is particularly supported by Trembley (10) who studied the association among the testosterone, physical development, and social behavior during early adolescence. He suggests that adolescents with larger body masses are more likely to be physically aggressive or socially dominant and tend to have higher testosterone levels, when provoked; adolescents tend to show physical aggressive behavior; like they would hit the person who irritates them.

Verbal aggression

Burbank (11) reports that children are involved in violence and physical aggression until they have attained the verbal skills but when these are developed, physical aggression is replaced by verbal aggression up to some extent. …

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