Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

A Comparative Psychosocial Frame of Happiness, Relationship and Narcissism of Varied Marital Status of Aged Men

Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

A Comparative Psychosocial Frame of Happiness, Relationship and Narcissism of Varied Marital Status of Aged Men

Article excerpt

Positive psychology works under the assumption that happiness is a scientifically unwieldy term and that its serious study involves dissolving whole into at least three distinct better defined roots to happiness (Seligman, 2002).

* Positive emotions and pleasure.

* Engagement and

* Meaning.

Argyle (2001 ) presented a tripartite conceptualization of happiness:

* The average level of satisfaction over a specific time period.

* The frequency and degree of positive affect.

* The relative absence of negative affect as depression and anxiety.

Again, Veenhoven (1994) stated, "happiness can be regarded as a trait if it meets three criteria (of)

* Temporal stability.

* Cross situational consistency.

* Inner causation.

Happiness involves a general average level of contentment and well-being, with a high frequency of positive feelings such as good humor, joy, laughter. Hope and enthusiasm, coupled with relative freedom from negative feelings such as sadness, worry, anxiety, anger, irritability, dependency and despair.

Narcissism refers to a "pervasive pattern of grandiosity" that is characterized by arrogant behaviours, feelings of entitlement and superiority and a lack of sympathy for or concern about others (APA, 1994). A current investigation examined the association among narcissism, age, ethnicity, world region, gender using a laige (n=3445) sample, suggesting that narcissism declines in older participants and males report being more narcissistic than females (Foster, Campbell & Twenge, 2003). Hotchkiss (2005) summarizes the history of narcissism theory and offers thumbnail sketches of what narcissism looks like from the respective of several major theorists. From these conceptualizations are derived six key concepts that recur in narcissism theory, which are as follows: Psychosocial frame of happiness, relationship and narcissism of aged men

* Differentiation

* Internal objects

* Primitive defenses;

* Envy;

* Superego development

* Affect regulation.

The word narcissism is derived from a great myth which is about Narcissus, a handsome Greek Youth, who rejected the desperate advance of the nymph echo. As punishment, he was deemed to fall in love with his own reflection in a pool of water. Unable to consummate his love, Narcissus pined away and changed into the flower that bears his name, the Narcissus (Sanyal, 2005). In other words, it relates to an exaggerated self love. However the term may consist of a variety of meaning depending on the orientation

Foster et al. (2003) studied individual differences in narcissism and their results showed that:

* Narcissism declines in older participants

* Which was consistent with previous findings where males report being more narcissistic than females,

* That ethnic differences in reported narcissism are generally comparable to those found in the self-esteem literature, and

* That world region appears to exert influence on narcissism, with participants from more individualistic societies reporting more narcissism than collectivistic ones.

The position of men in Indian society is of a complex nature. For male, his role as a major earner in the family is critical and he is likely to suffer in self-esteem if he sees himself as dependent. Aman who is dependent on her son is likely to experience a sense of inadequacy in the non-traditional, urban setting (Muttagi, 1997).

Urban older males are in most advantageous position compared to females. Urban men are better educated, likely to work in organized sector, to retire with a pension-scheme and are more likely to be insured. They are also more likely to use health facilities often, have a better health status (Prakash, 1997). As men retire, they abruptly loose power and influence in public sphere. They may indeed feel less dominant. When self-concept and self-esteem suffer older men and women tend to respond in different ways. …

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