Academic journal article European Journal of Psychotraumatology

Factor Structure of PTSD, and Relation with Gender in Trauma Survivors from India

Academic journal article European Journal of Psychotraumatology

Factor Structure of PTSD, and Relation with Gender in Trauma Survivors from India

Article excerpt


Factor structure of PTSD, and relation with gender in trauma survivors from India

Ruby Charak1,2, Cherie Armour3*, Ask Elklit4, Disket Angmo5, Jon D. Elhai6,7 and Hans M. Koot1

1Department of Developmental Psychology, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of Psychology, University of Jammu, Jammu, India; 3School of Psychology, University of Ulster, Coleraine, UK; 4The National Centre for Psychotraumatology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; 5Government Eliezer Joldan Memorial College, Leh, India; 6Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA; 7Department of Psychiatry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA


Background : The factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been extensively studied in Western countries. Some studies have assessed its factor structure in Asia (China, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia), but few have directly assessed the factor structure of PTSD in an Indian adult sample. Furthermore, in a largely patriarchal society in India with strong gender roles, it becomes imperative to assess the association between the factors of PTSD and gender.

Objective : The purpose of the present study was to assess the factor structure of PTSD in an Indian sample of trauma survivors based on prevailing models of PTSD defined in the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000), and to assess the relation between PTSD factors and gender.

Method : The sample comprised of 313 participants (55.9% female) from Jammu and Kashmir, India, who had experienced a natural disaster (N =200) or displacement due to cross-border firing (N =113).

Results : Three existing PTSD models--two four-factor models (Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria), and a five-factor model (Dysphoric Arousal)--were tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis with addition of gender as a covariate. The three competing models had similar fit indices although the Dysphoric Arousal model fit significantly better than Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria models. Gender differences were found across the factors of Re-experiencing and Anxious arousal.

Conclusions : Findings indicate that the Dysphoric Arousal model of PTSD was the best model; albeit the fit indices of all models were fairly similar. Compared to males, females scored higher on factors of Re-experiencing and Anxious arousal. Gender differences found across two factors of PTSD are discussed in light of the social milieu in India.

Keywords: PTSD; factor structure; gender; Dysphoric Arousal model; MIMIC; natural disaster; displacement due to cross border conflict

Responsible Editor: Chris Brewin, University College London, United Kingdom.

*Correspondence to: Cherie Armour, School of Psychology, University of Ulster, Coleraine Campus, Coleraine, Northern Ireland, UK, Email:

For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online

Received: 24 July 2014; Revised: 1 October 2014; Accepted: 9 October 2014; Published: 17 November 2014

European Journal of Psychotraumatology 2014. © 2014 Ruby Charak et al. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) License (, allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, for any purpose, even commercially, under the condition that appropriate credit is given, that a link to the license is provided, and that you indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.

Citation: European Journal of Psychotraumatology 2014, 5 : 25547 - …

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