Academic journal article Journal of Education and Learning

Video Review in Self-Assessment of Pharmacy Students' Communication Skills

Academic journal article Journal of Education and Learning

Video Review in Self-Assessment of Pharmacy Students' Communication Skills

Article excerpt


The objectives of this study were to develop a student self-assessment activity of a video-recorded counseling session and evaluate its impact on student self-perceptions of specific communication skills. This activity was incorporated into a core-communications course within the third professional year of a Doctor of Pharmacy curriculum. Student counseling sessions were video-recorded and released to students for self-assessment review. After watching their recorded counseling sessions, students completed an eight-question, paper-based survey which evaluated the impact of self-assessment on communication skill perceptions. Most students (95.6%) agreed or strongly agreed that their self-assessment process was valuable in developing their communication skills. The greatest change in assessment was associated with the use of eye contact (49.5%). Approximately 40% of students noted changes in perceptions for appropriate rate of speech (42.1%), voice volume (39.8%), and facial expressions (37.2%). Overall, self-assessment of video-recorded counseling sessions impacted students' perceptions of both verbal and non-verbal communication skills.

Keywords: communication, perception, student, self-assessment, video

1. Introduction

1.1 Background

Self-assessment in professional education helps improve students' knowledge, abilities, and values, and builds a foundation to support lifelong learning. As defined, self-assessment is a process that allows students to utilize established criteria to evaluate and reflect upon their learning to identify areas of improvement and competence (Motycka, Rose, Ried, & Brazeau, 2010). This competency is supported by the Accreditation Council of Pharmaceutical Education [ACPE] (2006) with recommendations to include activities that support self-assessment into the pharmacy curriculum. Stated under Guideline 11.1 regarding teaching methods, the standards call for the program to encourage and assist students to assume "responsibility for their own learning (including assessment of their learning needs, development of personal learning plans, self-assessment of the level of their knowledge skills, attitudes, and values, and their achievement of desired competencies and outcomes)" (ACPE, 2006). This responsibility also has been noted to be critical for their success after graduation, with self-appraisal being a component of continual professional development in pharmacy continuing education (Fjortoft, 2006).

1.2 Review of Literature

Many healthcare professions rely on self-assessment as a means of continuing professional development. Established research has demonstrated the limitations, however, of students in professional education to accurately self-assess their competence. In a systematic review of 20 physician self-assessments versus external observations, 13 showed little, no, or inverse associations between the two. These assessments included evaluation of clinical skills, teaching abilities, cultural competencies, and understanding of evidence based medicine (Davis et al., 2006). A study of self-assessment of communication skills in over 400 medical students found that student values differed significantly from the standardized patients for the majority of communication related skills (Gruppen et al., 1997). In a similar review of 80 senior students in a Doctor of Pharmacy program, students, on average, overestimated their communication skills and clinical knowledge, as compared to external raters (peers and expert) (Austin & Gregory, 2007).

Various studies have evaluated the use of video review in the self-assessment of clinical and/or communication skills (Del Mar & Isaacs, 1992; Hays, 1990; Hu, Tiemann, & Brunt, 2013; Nilsen & Baerheim, 2005; Ozcakar et al., 2009; Zick, Granieri, & Makoul, 2007). In addition, videotaping of student performance in the healthcare professions has been evaluated as a tool to improve the quality of self-assessments. …

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