Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

Frequency of Human Papillumavirus among Women with High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions and Invasive Cervical Cancer Attending Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Clinics, Tehran, Iran

Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

Frequency of Human Papillumavirus among Women with High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions and Invasive Cervical Cancer Attending Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Clinics, Tehran, Iran

Article excerpt

Introduction

Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women and the seventh overall worldwide with an estimated 528000 new cases and 26600 death in 2012, about 7.5% of all female cancer related death (1, 2). Iran, a country in west Asia and EMRO region with 76 million populations accounted the age-standardized cervical cancer incidence rate is 2.8% with 1.2% mortality, 5 year prevalence of 3.2% and the rank is 11 among all female cancers (1, 3, 4).

The rate of abnormal Pap smear is between 0.3%4.1% in population base studies (5-7) and 4% among women who come to gynecology clinic for any disorder and had opportunity pap smear test (8). In general, most of women who develop cervical cancer tend to have one or more identifiable factors such as early sexual activity, immune system deficiency, multi paternity, cigarette smoking, hormonal that increases their risk for the disease, but some types of Human Papillomavirus, in particular HPV 16 and 18, are found in over 70-99 per cent of cervical cancers (9, 10). Human papillomavirus infection (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the world (11). Infection by some of the HPV types is determined, as a necessary factor for development of cervical cancer (12). The HPV prevalence is very different around the world. A global report finds highest rates of HPV in Caribbean with 35% and East African women with 33%, while West Asia has the lowest rates of women infected with HPV (2.2%) in the normal population (13, 14). There are more than 100 types of HPV more than 40 types of known as oncogenist and the rest of those are Non-oncogenic or low-risk HPV types, such as HPV 6 or 11 which can cause genital warts (15).

It is now recognized that virtually all cervical cancers (both the squamous and adenocarcinoma histological types) and their precursor lesions are causally related to cervical infections through at least 14 high risk or oncogenic genotypes of HPV [16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68] that mainly diagnosed by molecular methods, like PCR assay (16-18). However, only a minority of pre-cancerous lesions progress to cervical cancer, the HPV type is a mighty risk factor for differentiation progression (17).

Previous studies reported some data about prevalence release of high-risk HPV types in HSIL or cervical cancer worldwide and Iran, however, this information is variable and not enough for final judgment about the HPV type in a country such as Iran with low rate of cervical cancer , for cervical cancer control program (7, 12, 19-21). National data on type fomentation in different provinces of Iran is essential for estimating the impact of vaccines on cervical cancer and for the development of screening programs.

The aim of the present study was to assess the HPV type distribution among women who had a pathological diagnosed for HSIL and ICC, attendant to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences clinics for treatment during 10 years.

Materials and Methods

This retrospective-descriptive study evaluated the HPV type distribution of pathologic specimens of Iranian women with invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Although we claim that this study with no research intervention do not need Ethics Committee approval, however the study was approved by the Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University, according the consent form that were signed by all study samples who already came to the clinics and mentioned that they take permission for any future evaluation. The first group was 64 formalin-fixed tumor biopsies that were retrieved from women presenting with histological confirmation for Invasive Cervical Cancer (ICC) and the second group was 17 pathologic confirmations for High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (HSIL) specimens between 2002-2012, both to the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences teaching hospitals, all in Tehran, Iran. …

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