Academic journal article IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: Managing Interpersonal Conflict at Workplace

Academic journal article IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: Managing Interpersonal Conflict at Workplace

Article excerpt

Introduction

With the banking sector entering into a dynamic and erratic business environment, sustaining organization's viability has emerged as a complex and challenging task for the managers (Jordan and Sevastos, 2003; and Ahmed et al., 2012). To enhance organizational performance, firms need more employees who are willing to surpass the formal roles and responsibilities which are often defined by their formal job descriptions (Jordan and Sevastos, 2003; and Peelle III, 2007). These individuals are referred to as the 'good soldiers' (Organ, 1988, p. 160) of an organization distinguished by demonstration of the extra-role behaviors which tend to influence the overall performance of the organization. Such extra-role behaviors have been referred to as Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB) (Bateman and Organ, 1983). In this era of cutthroat competition, performance becomes a major criterion for success, defined as the 'actions and behaviors that are under the control of the individual and contribute to the goals of the organization' by Rotundo and Sackett (2002), which also demarcates the top performers from the underachievers (p. 66). As the performance of employees is a result of the behaviors they portray, it becomes imperative to study the underlying behaviors concerning performance. The overall job performance of an employee is a mix of three behaviors, namely, task behavior, citizenship behavior and counterproductive behavior (Colquitt, 2008). Task behavior, also known as In-Role Behavior (IRB), is a behavior that an employee demonstrates while fulfilling the formal duties and requirements of his job. The third category of behaviors move from being 'good soldiers' of organization (Organ, 1988) to being 'bad apples', where the employee behaviors intentionally hinder organizational goal accomplishment and are referred to as Counterproductive Work Behaviors (CWB), defined as the 'voluntary behavior of organizational members that violates significant organizational norms and, in doing so, threatens the wellbeing of an organization, its members, or both' (Robinson and Bennett, 1995, p. 556). The CWB has been viewed by various authors differently, including organizational aggression (Neuman and Baron, 1998; and Fox and Spector, 1999), antisocial behavior (Giacalone and Greenberg, 1997) and workplace deviance (Hollinger, 1986; and Robinson and Bennett, 1995). As today, most of the jobs require at least a minimum amount of interaction with other people (co-workers), such social interactions possibly become a source of satisfaction and personal fulfillment (Riordan and Griffeth, 1995; and Nielsen eta!., 2000), but these interactions may result in making work more stressful, if Interpersonal Conflicts (ICs) arise at workplace (Jex and Britt, 2008). CWB includes acts directed at both organizations and people and has been found to be associated highly with IC (Spector and Fox, 2005), and conflict at work has been found to be an important and pervasive workplace stressor (Eatough, 2010). IC at workplace represents the extent to which an employee has negatively charged social interactions with his co-workers (Spector, 1987 as cited in Eatough, 2010). Workplace conflicts have important ties to employee behaviors relevant to organizations (Eatough, 2010). Therefore, analyzing employee behaviors relevant to the organization's wellbeing and also those which work against the organization occupies a vital position in literature and research.

This paper focuses on examining the relationship between extra-role behaviors (OCBs) and ICs arising at workplace among the employees of the public and private sector banks. Additionally, it also aims at analyzing the differences (if any) between public and private sector employees in terms of using these citizenship behaviors.

Literature Review and Hypothesis Development

Organizational Citizenship Behavior

The concept of OCB came into limelight when Bateman and Organ (1983) coined the term OCB in 1983 (as cited in Podsakoff et al. …

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