Academic journal article International Education Studies

A Systematic Framework for Entrepreneurship Education within a University Context

Academic journal article International Education Studies

A Systematic Framework for Entrepreneurship Education within a University Context

Article excerpt

Abstract

The importance of entrepreneurship education that positively impact on the creation of new ventures has been widely recognized. Although numerous studies of entrepreneurship education have been conducted within a university setting, the results are mostly fragmented. Therefore, by using a systematic framework, this research is focused on examining relevant learning and institutional supports within a university context for those who want to become successful entrepreneurs. This descriptive study is based on in-depth interviews with respondents at a private university. The gathered data are coded, and they result in a mapping of entrepreneurship education. There are some important findings from this research. One is that the university already has facilities to support learning within the institution, although it lacks in the management to optimize their utilization. The other is that the assurance of the students' learning effectiveness is not well managed.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship education, framework of entrepreneurship education, successful entrepreneur, management in education

1. Introduction

The role of entrepreneurs has well been respected as a greater contributor in economic development of most nations (Ogbo, 2012). Nations will develop faster if they have high quality, creative, and innovative entrepreneurs that implement new ideas into practical actions in every business. Developing countries have some important issues of entrepreneurs. For examples, India has new business ownership rate of 4.9%, Malaysia has 5.2%, Philippines has 6.7%, Thailand has 10.4%, and Indonesia has 20.4%. Also, there have been low intentions to become entrepreneurs for the last 3 years. Malaysia has 11.8% of entrepreneurial intention, Thailand has 18.5%, India has 22.8%, Indonesia has 35.1%, and Philippine has 44.1% (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, 2013).

Entrepreneurship education has a vital role in guiding all learners to become more entrepreneurial-minded (Hegarty, 2006). The implementation of entrepreneurship education within universities is aimed to infuse the entrepreneurial culture and spirit into the students as well as to create new educated entrepreneurs and new businesses (US Department of Commerce, 2013). In other words, the expected outcome is to produce well-educated entrepreneurs to create jobs. According to 46 case interviews at European Universities, there are several barriers to Entrepreneurship Education (EE): EE depends on the efforts of just few people, academic staffs members do not have enough time to engage in EE, inadequate of educators' competence, lack of funding to support EE, some academic staff members oppose the introduction of EE, lack of support for EE from government, lack of good quality of materials, lack of academic credibility, lack of recognition for excellent EE, and lack of support from top management (FORA, ECON and NIRAS Consultant, 2008). Meanwhile, according to a survey result on 549 company founders in Unites State, 70% of them said that university education was important to support students to become successful entrepreneurs (Wadhwa, Aggarwal, Holly, & Salkever, 2009).

Several studies of entrepreneurship education were conducted in order to support students to become successful entrepreneurs. However, the tangible results were often difficult to observe due to low intentions to become entrepreneurs in developing countries. Co and Mitchell (2006) conducted the mapping of existing popular courses offered and observed the existing classroom delivery techniques. Other studies conducted the mapping of entrepreneurship education within a higher education institution (Solomon, 2007; Varblane & Mets, 2010). Some studies only focused on teaching methods such as entrepreneurial-directed approach (Heinonen & Poikkijoki, 2006) and problem-based learning approach (Tan & Ng, 2006). There are also some other studies focusing on students such as their psychological aspects (Ibrahim & Soufani, 2002; Gelderen, 2010) and the importance of selection process of students (Dhliwayo, 2008). …

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