Academic journal article International Education Studies

Educational Reforms in Morocco: Evolution and Current Status

Academic journal article International Education Studies

Educational Reforms in Morocco: Evolution and Current Status

Article excerpt


Since 1956, the year in Morocco achieved independence, until now, the school system has been the subject of many discussions and controversies in the most varied areas of the country. We provide data on the educational situation. We analyze the reforms from a critical perspective, ending with final proposals. He underlined that the sector was experiencing a number of difficulties and problems due in particular to the adoption of syllabuses and courses that do not meet the needs of the labour market. Managing human resources is a key component of effective management with significant influence on the overall performance of schools. With a highly centralized structure, is structured in a preschool, primary, school, secondary, vocational and higher education with a very different way called Original Teachings rooted in the principles and ideals of the Arab-Muslim civilization. The laher is structured in three main stages of education: basic, secondary and higher education. We concluded by acknowledging the efforts made in recent years in the Moroccan education sector, although there is still a considerable number of clearly important aspects of improvement.

Keywords: Morocco, reform, education, school, system

1. Introduction

Since 1956, when Morocco achieved independence, until the present day, the education system has been the subject of endless discussion and controversy in a wide range of national forums. So much so, that from 1956 to 1977, Morocco had some twenty ministers of education (Ibaaquil, 1996), and the changes at the top led to a certain instability and lack of continuity in education policy. The disagreements over the measures to be adopted contrast with the unanimity in their diagnosis of the problems, namely: the uncontrolled growth of students in secondary and higher education, lack of equipment, poor quality, high levels of failure and drop-out rates, deficient teacher training, unsuitable syllabuses, regional imbalances, problems with school ahendance for women, lack of coordination with the labor market, and so on.

In the report issued by the World Bank on the situation in Morocco in 1994, it was already considered that education ought to occupy a central position in the reform process that Morocco was due to face at the dawn of the twenty-first century, because: "that is what will ensure the long term establishment of a more efficient economy and a more equitable society" (Banque Mondiale, 1995). The aim of this report was to encourage Morocco to embark on a raft of reforms that would lead to a more modern and competitive economy, enabling the country to play a more active part in the world economy and a competitive role in the international arena as the new century approached. To achieve this, it would have to undertake a thorough reform of its education system, concentrating on improving the quality of its education, the methodologies used and knowledge transmitted, with a view to forming economically active citizens who would be beher adjusted socially to a highly competitive system. However, as Morocco was in fact backward and its human resources not adapted to the needs of the labor market, these reforms could not be achieved without "a clearer vision of the kind of future society that Morocco is looking for" (Banque Mondiale, 1995)

Following independence, Mohammed V first of all tackled the educational reforms. Later, his successor, Hassan II, stated emphatically in his Speech from the Throne that: "Our major concern is the reform of the education system" (Hassan II, 1998), and also made numerous changes, prominent among which was the Arabization of the education system.

Since the creation of the Higher Council for Education (CSE), there has been a steady stream of reform projects, in 1975, 1985 and 1995, as well as those resulting from the "Charte Nationale" [National Charter] projects introduced in 1978 and 1981. Assessments made by the Special Commission for Education and Training (COSEF) before the latest reform in 1999 concluded that, despite the considerable efforts made, the education system was not fulfilling its role satisfactorily. …

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