Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Actual Problems of Development of the System of Higher Education of the Russian Federation: The Institutional Aspects

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Actual Problems of Development of the System of Higher Education of the Russian Federation: The Institutional Aspects

Article excerpt

Abstract

The system of higher education in Russia is experiencing a period of significant institutional changes related to the desire of the state to ensure availability of the benefits of higher education, high quality of services of higher education, reliability of signals of higher education in the labour market. At the same time, the tool-kit, selected by the regulator - tightening surveillance and monitoring of activity of universities - does not allow to achieve effective institutional balance. Analysis of the situation in Russia in the field of higher education, especially in the institutional aspects as well as the conceptual definition of strategic approaches to increase the effectiveness of higher education in Russia this article is devoted to.

Keywords: higher education, signals, general welfare, labour market, economic opportunism

1. Introduction

During the last few years (2009-2014) the Russian state has implemented a series of institutional refonns, which have dramatically changed the situation in the field of higher education.

First of all, we are discussing, of course, introduction of the Unified State Examination (USE) in 2009, which is a centralized final state attestation of high school graduates and university entrance tests simultaneously. Besides that, the conditions of supervision (compliance with licensing requirements and legislation in the field of education) and certification of institutions (state accreditation, monitoring effectiveness of the institutions) were significantly transfonned and tightened. An intensive implementation of a large-scale program of improvement of practice-orientation of higher education and monitoring effectiveness of university activity in the labour market has begun. The institutional pointe of the process was represented by the Federal Law N° 273-FZ dated 26.12.2012, On Education in the Russian Federation', which recognized the new rights and responsibilities of universities and procedure for surveillance and monitoring. These institutional novels significantly influenced both the industry situation as a whole, and the interior of the activity of Russian universities.

2. Method

The approach widespread today treats the higher education market as a servicing unit of the labour market, or a kind of market of production factor of production, respectively, all principles microanalysis are recognized tme: in particular, overproduction in the market of higher education in itself reduces the price of a highly skilled workforce in the labour market, and decrease of quality of output of the higher education market aggravates this process, negatively affect both the field of higher education and the economy in general. And if for usual markets the mentioned above is, to some extent, a nonnal cyclical process of adaptation, in relation to such a significant for the society area as higher education such a process is recognized as impermissible.

At the same time - let us emphasize once again - the fight for accuracy of the standard signals presented to the labour market does not just solve the problem, but stimulates development of opportunistic trends in the field of higher education. At that, the typical qualification of graduates itself has a clear idea: reduction of transaction costs of potential employers, who in the absence of other institutional arrangements (shops, class apprenticeship system) would have to develop a system of verification of characteristics of private workers of all specialties - such systems (recommendations and others) are actually already in use, but, of course, mostly as an extra.

We start from the important distinction, defined by the regulator of Russian higher education themselves: activity of the university is education and qualification. Behind this there is an implicit division of teaching for education as a process and education as a result of the educational process and education as socioeconomic identification (qualification, signaling). …

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