Academic journal article American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal

Antimicrobial Activity of Plumbago Zeylanica Plant Extracts and Its Application in Water and Laboratory Disinfection

Academic journal article American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal

Antimicrobial Activity of Plumbago Zeylanica Plant Extracts and Its Application in Water and Laboratory Disinfection

Article excerpt

Abstract.This study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial activities/ potentials of Plumbago zeylanica components (leaf, stem and root) on four bacterial species, Baccilus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia with the aim of using the active part of the plant to be used in water and laboratory disinfection. The plant parts crude extract was concentrated using a rotary evaporator and dried in a freeze drier. Different concentrations of the plant parts were then prepared from the dried plant extract and tested on the four pathogens using agar diffusion methods. The results indicated that active antimicrobial properties are concentrated more in the roots been very effective against Escherichia coli even at low concentration. However, at higher concentration all the plant extracts became effective against the bacteria. The study concludes that the roots of Plumbago zeylanica possess the highest antimicrobial potentials for disinfection. Then, the root extract was tested on effluent water and the results showed significance reduction level of Escherichia coli.

Keywords: antimicrobial, Escherichia coli, disinfection, plant extract, Plumbago zeylanica, water.

(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)

1.INTRODUCTION

Jeyachandran, et al., in 2009 reported and citing different sources, it has been established that over the past few decades there has been much interest in natural materials as sources of new antimicrobial agents. However, the focussed plant Plumbago zeylanica, from previous studies established that the plants have active antimicrobial activity. For instance, the plant is of medicinal, pharmaceutical and therapeutic significances have been established in some part of world even in Nigeria (Madhava Chetty, et al., 2006), (Agbaje and Adeniran, 2008), (Dhale and Markandeya, 2011), (Ravikumar and Sudha, 2011), (Manu, et al., 2012) and (Kakad Subhash, Wabale and Kharde, 2013) among others.

Plumbago zeylanica is widely used for its medicinal properties in Africa, and many uses are being confirmed by scientific research (Mungwini, 2006). Although plumbagin may have medicinal potential, e.g. for its antimicrobial and antitumour activity, the use of plumbagin or plumbagin-containing plant material as medicine for humans is dangerous because of the high toxicity. This can be a limitation for its potential uses for drinking water disinfection (Mungwini, 2006).

Plumbago zeylanica is very popular throughout Africa and Asia as a remedy for skin diseases, infections and intestinal worms, especially leprosy, scabies, ringworm, dermatitis, acne, sores, ulcers of the leg, haemorrhoids and hookworm (Mungwini, 2006) and (Ch.Kethani and Gopala, 2012).

Furthermore, all parts of the plant are used, but the root is considered to have the highest activity. In West Africa the root, or the leaves crushed with lemon juice, are used as a counter-irritant and vesicant. The pulped roots or aerial parts are inserted into the vagina as an abortifacient. This is a dangerous practice as it sometimes results in death (Mungwini, 2006). In Nigeria the roots pounded with vegetable oil are applied to rheumatic swellings. In Ethiopia, powdered bark, root or leaves are used to treat gonorrhoea, syphilis, tuberculosis, rheumatic pain, swellings and wounds. In southern Africa a paste of the root in vinegar, milk and water is used to treat influenza and blackwater fever. Plumbago zeylanica root cooked with meat in soup is eaten in Zimbabwe as an aphrodisiac, and it also helps digestion among others (Mungwini, 2006).

The plant has shown antibacterial activity against both gram-positive (e.g. Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pneumococcus spp.) and gram-negative (e.g. Salmonella, Neisseria) bacteria, whereas it is also active against certain yeasts and fungi (Candida, Trichophyton, Epidermophyton and Microsporum spp.) and protozoa (Leishmania). It has been found to prevent Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus developing resistance to antibiotics. …

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