Academic journal article International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology

Psichometrics Properties of Psychological Dating Violence Questionnaire: A Study with Young couples/Propiedades Psicométricas del Cuestionario De Violencia Psicológica En El Cortejo: Un Estudio Con Parejas Jóvenes

Academic journal article International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology

Psichometrics Properties of Psychological Dating Violence Questionnaire: A Study with Young couples/Propiedades Psicométricas del Cuestionario De Violencia Psicológica En El Cortejo: Un Estudio Con Parejas Jóvenes

Article excerpt

Over the last few decades national and international studies about romantic relationships have gained strength, such relationships are considerably serious outside marriage or cohabitation. Adolescents and young relationships, which are prior to the consolidation of the couple and outside marriage or cohabitation -known as dating- (Connolly & McIsaac, 2011), tend to be different from those held by adults in areas such as level of commitment, duration, sexual intimacy and the way to solve conflicts (Furman & Wehner, 1997; Molidor & Tolman, 1998). Thus, the violent dynamic that might arise will have different characteristics (for example, there's no financial dependence, emotional blackmail or other abusive conducts in relation to children, or household co-responsibility, etc.). The Report of Youth in Spain (INJUVE, 2012) points out that only 23.8% of young people between 20 to 24 years of age live with their partners and it is also observed that the higher the educational level the higher the percentage of youngsters living at the parental home. All these features make the relationships and violent manifestations among young university couples quite different from the adult ones. Violence in dating relationships in young people are characterized for being moderate, bidirectional and reciprocal (Nocentini, Pastorelli, & Menesini, 2011; Ortega & Sánchez, 2010; Viejo, 2014).

Notwithstanding, there has been less research on psychological violence than on other types of maltreatment, like physical or sexual abuse. Perhaps, the lack of psychological violence centered research is due to the fact that it can be less objective and more difficult to evaluate than physical maltreatment and other types of violence (Calvete, Corral, & Estévez, 2005; Rodríguez-Carballeira et al., 2005).

It has been in the last few decades when research interest has emerged in this field regarding adolescent and young couples' relationships. The majority of studies that include this or any other type of violence in dating relationships have considered it as a risk factor of violence in the adulthood or marital couples (Gormley & López, 2010; Moreno-Manso, Blázquez-Alonso, García-Baamonde, Guerrero-Barona, & Pozueco-Romero, 2014), establishing that psychological partner violence is a behaviour repeated along the following relationships (Lohman, Neppl, Senia, & Schofield, 2013).

Scientific literature has established that psychological violence is defined by attitudes, behaviours and styles of communication based on humiliation, control, disapproval, hostility, denigration, domination, intimidation, threat of direct violence and jealousy (Murphy & Hoover, 1999; O'Leary & Smith-Slep, 2003). O'Leary (1999) identified in his definition control and domination actions but also verbal aggression including denigration and recurring criticism towards the partner. Marshall (1999) introduced a new perspective in the study of psychological violence by differencing overt and subtle ways of abuse. Overt psychological violence is characterized by spreading behaviors of control and dominance easy to recognize because an aggressive and dominant style is used and it clearly affects resulting feelings, including: domination, indifference, monitoring and discredit. This type of abuse tends to occur in situations of conflict. Nonetheless, subtle psychological violence can appear in loving, joking and caring situations. Messages and actions to undermine, discount and isolate the partner are defined as subtle. These forms are independent from domination and produce an emotional damage that is difficult to recognize as abusive.

International and national research on psychological violence has shown higher rates of prevalence than other types of intimate violence (Liles et al., 2012; Zorrilla et al., 2010). These higher rates of psychological violence have been identified in dating relationships in which the implication is around 80%. …

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