Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Linking Person-Job Fit, Person-Organization Fit, Employee Engagement and Turnover Intention: A Three-Step Conceptual Model

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Linking Person-Job Fit, Person-Organization Fit, Employee Engagement and Turnover Intention: A Three-Step Conceptual Model

Article excerpt


Past studies revealed that the existence of congruence between employees and their job as well as organisation produces more favourable attitudes and behaviours. Although considerable research has been conducted on the person-job (P-J) fit and person-organization (P-O) fit, an in depth review of the literature identifies several research gaps. First, studies have largely focused on examining P-J fit and P-O fit separately. In addition, the relationship of P-J fit and P-O fit, and employee engagement has been less discussed. Lastly, most often studies investigated how antecedents predict outcomes but minimal effort has been made to explore the consequences of these outcomes. This paper makes a twofold contribution. First, it conceptually integrates both P-O fit and P-J fit into a single model. Second, the paper proposes a three-step model that theoretically links P-J fit and P-O fit (antecedents) to employee engagement (outcome) and turnover intention (consequence). The addition of a third-step would support the evaluation of the outcomes (in terms of the consequences of the overall model) and extend the overall scope of the framework. Social exchange theory, Lewin's field theory, multidimensional model of employee engagement and self-concept-job fit theory are adopted in developing the theoretical linkages among the constructs. Recommendations for future studies are proposed.

Keywords: person-job fit, person-organization fit, employee engagement, turnover intention

1. Introduction

Empirical evidence indicates that organizations that successfully retain their top talent will significantly thrive (Holtom, Mitchell, Lee, & Inderrieden, 2005). Although both academicians and practitioners believe that human capital is the most valuable asset to an organization, the retention of high skilled talent has always been one of the major challenges (Boswell, Ren, & Hinrichs, 2008). It has been noted that high voluntary turnover hampers the strategic objectives of organizations and becomes a severe threat to their competitive advantage. Undeniably, the loss of high skilled talent not only creates financial constraints (Juhdi, Pa'wan, & Hansaram, 2013), it also affects the productivity of the organization (Johnson, 1995), low morale of the other employees (Johnson, 1995), as well as loss of organizational memory (Huber, 1991). The cost incurred in each voluntary movement is equivalent to approximately 25% to 33% of the annual salary of each of the individuals who leave (Bitzer, 2006). Despite the severe consequences this creates, organizations around the globe are constantly facing a high number of voluntary quits (Memon, Salleh, Baharom, & Hamn, 2014; Memon, Salleh, Hamn, Rashid, & Bakar, 2014).

Parsa, Tesone, and Templeton (2009) believe that the flaws in the selection process of the organizations could be one of the reasons for such high rate of voluntary turnover. In short, it may be possible that selected individuals do not fit in with the organization's environment, and, ultimately, decide to leave that organization for a better fit. Past studies revealed that the existence of fit produces more favourable attitudes-experience, greater well-being and perform better (Hoffman & Woehr, 2006; Kristof-Brown, Zimmerman, & Johnson, 2005). The literature often indicated two different forms of fit, such as P-J fit and P-O fit. The P-J fit is defined as the "relationship between a person's characteristics and those of the job or tasks that are performed at work", whereas the P-O fit addresses "the compatibility between individuals and the organization" (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005, p. 284). Both the P-J fit and P-O fit have been found to be significantly negatively related with turnover intention (Arthur, Bell, Villado, & Doverspike, 2006; Boon, Den Hartog, Boselie, & Paauwe, 2011). In addition, both are positively linked with job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behaviour, and job performance (Biswas & Bhatnagar, 2013; Cable & DeRue, 2002; Kim, Aryee, Loi, & Kim, 2013). …

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