Academic journal article Asian Social Science

The Mean Difference of Religiosity between Residents of Rural Areas and Urban Areas of Mahmoudabad City

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

The Mean Difference of Religiosity between Residents of Rural Areas and Urban Areas of Mahmoudabad City

Article excerpt

Abstract

The main objective of this research is to study the mean difference of religiosity between the residents of rural areas and urban areas of Mahmoudabad City. For the measure of religiosity, Glock and Stark's (1965) model of religiosity is used. For the analysis of the theoretical perspectives, theories of IbnKhaldun, Tonnies, Durkheim, Giddens and Martin are used. The statistical population of the research consists of samples are 400 people. Half of the sample is from rural areas and the other half are from urban areas. This research is conducted based upon survey. The data obtained from the survey is described and analyzed by using SPSS software. The statistical methods are demonstrated and analyzed in two parts of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The findings of the research show that there is a significant difference in belief and ritual dimensions of religiosity between rural residents and urban residents. The levels of belief and ritual dimensions of religiosity are higher in rural residents in comparison with urban residents. In addition, among sub-dimensions of ritual religiosity, only intellectual religiosity has no significant difference between rural and urban residents. Moreover, the level of religiosity of total urban residents and rural residents has a significant difference and the level of religiosity in rural residents is higher than urban residents.

Keywords: urbanization, religiosity, belief religiosity, application religiosity

1. Introduction and Problem Statement

It's obvious that religion as a transcendent value plays an important role in forming and causing some morale and some consequences in social life of people. Perhaps the most important consequence of religion in society is "the consolidation of social relations of people" (Rabbani & Taheri, 2010, p. 93). It could be admitted that religion is a phenomenon that might have influence on society, its structure and its affairs besides being effected by them. Thus, religion is a social phenomenon for sociologists. "As long as there is religion in one's belief and attachment, it is considered as an individual affair, but when it is manifested in norms, beliefs and social practices, when it affects social life and also when it has social functions, it is considered as a social phenomenon" (Kalantari, 2012, p. 175). Religion, alongside, government, economics, education, and family form are the five primitive basic social institutions in every community. Like other basic social institutions, religion has the following characteristics: generality, continuity, universality, meeting the basic needs of people. First, the institution of religion is a public and primitive institution common in all human societies. Second, the necessity of the institution of religion in society is vital and cmcial. Third, the institution of religion is of great antiquity and its formation is synonymous with the formation of the human society. Fourth, this institution has existed before one's birth and also after one's birth, so they face it at his birth. Fifth, this institution changes slowly, but it never disappears because it's necessary for social life in human society (Sadrabadi & Meymandi, 2010, p. 135). But, in spite of social and individual functions of religion, the global expansion of modernism, the growth of modern science and the rationality of modernism led the way of human thinking and its view of self, the world, religion and changing values (Kalantari, 2012, p. 176). In addition, researchers and sociologists think that urban revolution is another factor that led to the change of people's way of thinking. In 19th and 20th century, as a result of industrial revolution, many people migrated and urbanization along with social changes in which happened after industrial and political revolutions had a deep impact on religious beliefs. Iran, just like other countries, had a growth in its urban population. Based in (1390), nearly 71. …

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