Academic journal article Journal of Behavioural Sciences

Translation and Adaptation of Parent-Child Relationship Scale into Urdu Language

Academic journal article Journal of Behavioural Sciences

Translation and Adaptation of Parent-Child Relationship Scale into Urdu Language

Article excerpt

The study of secure parent-child relationship in child development has received ever increasing attention in the last few decades with special focus towards the cognitive, social and emotional development (Erickson, Sroufe & Egeland, 1985). Efforts to explore the effects of home environment on child development have yielded consistent findings of association between parenting practices and social, emotional and cognitive development (El-Sheikh & Buckhalt, 2003).

Indeed available data shows that healthy parent-child relationships have been associated with positive outcomes for adolescents protecting them from psychological, emotional and behavioral problems (Brody et al., 2005, Hair, Moore, Garret, Kinukawa, Lippman, & Michelson, 2005; & Herman, Dornbusch, Herron, & Herting, 1997). While unhealthy interaction of parents with children may leads towards many emotional, behavioral and cognitive problems in children (Fatima & Sheikh, 2009; Harrist & Ainslie, 1998; & McNealJr, 2001). Concept of parent-child relationship as an interaction of the parents with their children consists of a combination of feelings, perceptions, expressions, behaviors, and expectations that relate parents to their children. Cordial parent-child relationship includes parental warmth, love, affection, support and parental reward. Negative parent-child relationship includes parental rejection, neglecting, punishment and indifferent behavior towards the child. Though the relationship with parents changes during adolescence, yet the quality of parent-child relationships is still an important determinant of healthy adjustment of adolescents. Transition to adolescence becomes healthy and easy in children who enjoy warm and positive relations with parents. Therefore parents need to recognize the continued importance of positive and loving relationships with their growing children during this critical developmental period (Brittain & Hunt, 2003).

During the past several decades, cross-cultural assessment by using the standardized tests has become a sensitive issue (Chang, 2001). Equivalence of psychological measures across cultural groups can be ensured by establishing the external validity in addition to internal validity and by cross validation of the measures across cultures (Sue, 1999). For cross cultural testing, test translation and test adaptation were identified as two main issues by Butcher and Garcia (1978). Fouad (1993) and Geisinger (1994) state that instrument must be validly adapted and conceptual and linguistic equivalence of the items must be maintained during the process of translation. With increasing concern in parent-child relationship in developmental studies, it is important to establish the cross validity of the parent-child relationship scales across different cultures and languages. So the primary aim of the study was the translation and adaptation of the of the Rao's parent-child relationship scale into Urdu, the national language of Pakistan. Urdu is the official language of Pakistan. It is among the group of top 10 languages and its growing popularity all over the world reflect the spread of Urdu as an international language (Weber, 2008).

The study further intended to validate the Urdu version by analyzing the psychometric properties of the scale. The scale was translated as part of PhD research project that intended to highlight the mechanism by which parent-child relations effect aggression in adolescent population. The data was taken from Lahore, a cosmopolitan city with a population of around 10 million people. Pakistan constitutes around 63% (103 million) youth of its total population. It is included in countries having huge number of youth and youth problems. Problems faced by Pakistani youth have never been paid due consideration and addressed properly (Ashraf, n.d.). Adolescents from Asia are at greatest risk for violence exposure in their homes (Pratt, 1999). Thus far a few published studies have addressed the impact of parent-child relations on youth adjustment. …

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