Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Informational Sources of Sport Tourists Attending ISTAF Super Series

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Informational Sources of Sport Tourists Attending ISTAF Super Series

Article excerpt

Introduction

Background and Literature Review

Sport- Tourism

Tourism context conceptualized sport as an accidental or general issue rather than as a central position prior to 1990s (Hinch & Higham, 2011). Sport-tourism is defined as "sport-based travel away from the home environment for a limited time, where sport is characterized by unique rule sets, competition related to physical prowess, and a playful nature" (p. 18). This is consistent with definitions in the tourism concepts of spatial, temporal and activity dimensions but the activity aspect is identified as sport. Weed (2009) argued that "the primacy of the sport or the tourism element in many sports tourism experiences cannot be established and that, in fact, for many experiences separate and distinguishable sport and tourism elements may not be present" (p.619). He referred to Nauright (1996) who noted that "many cases, sporting events and people's reaction to them are the clearest public manifestations of culture and collective identities in a given society" (p.69). The distinctive view of his study was positioning sport as a culture reflection or one or more than one culture dimension that was publicly displayed in South Africa or other destinations.

Small-Scale Sports Events

Research on large-scale sport events such as the 'Olympic Games' and the 'FIFA World Cup' has reported negative impacts such as increased instances of corruption in addition to increased budgetary spending in the host areas during the bidding cycle (Baade & Matheson, 2004; Hall, 1993; Jennings & Gothard, 1996), as well as hardships for local residents like their unwanted displacements (Fredline, 2005; Getz, 2005; Hall, 1992). By contrast, Higham (1999) referred to numerous researches that generally reported positive results of developments for tourism and economy gained by more sporting contests in modest scale. Thus, he introduced the view of small-scale sporting-events as "regular seasonal sporting contests, international sporting fixtures, domestic competitions, masters or disabled sports and alike". Higham explained that small-scale events contribute to reduce the funds invested as not necessary to bid, nugatory security issues and existing sport facilities and infrastructures through staging such events. Moreover, because of the lack of scale and importance, these events will not be accounted for political ambitions and are not used as political means by governments.

Sepaktaraw as Traditional Sport Event

Traditional sports event is the subset of small-scale sport events. Traditional sports are often considered as ethnic or regional identity symbols both locally and nationally, that distinguish them from many modern sports (Renson, 1992) Both tradition and culture are related and relied on the creations in cultural community (UNESCO, 1990). Culture has been expressed by individuals or group and recognized as a reflection of expectation in a community and represents the social and cultural identification which have been transmitted by different oral means and imitation. One of such traditional sports is Sepaktakraw which literally means 'kick ball' as Sepak emerged from Malay word meaning kick and Takraw as a Thai word used for a rattan ball (Megat & Virdati, 2012). In the Philippines, it is called 'Sepa Sepa', in Myanmar, 'Ching Loong', in Indonesia, 'Rago' and in Laos, 'Kator'. This game is often described as a brilliant mix of volleyball, football, gymnastics and martial arts. Playing Sepaktakraw is closely linked to the time of Sultanates of Malacca dating to 15th century, in 16th century in Thailand and as far back as 11th century in the rest of southeastern Asian countries such as Brunei, the Philippines, Myanmar, Indonesia, and Laos (ISTAF, 2014).

Malaysia has been likely to develop its reputation as global launch of Sepaktakraw sporting event and can be ardently called the home of Sepakatakraw. Throughout the Sepaktakraw history, Kedah's team visited Germany in conjunction with the 1970 Sports Press Feast in Wolf burg, Homburg regarding the showcase of advanced Sepaktakraw game. …

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