Academic journal article Review of European Studies

Historical Retrospective of Environmental Problems of Oil-Extracting Regions (on the Example of the Almetyevsk District of Tatarstan Republic in Russia in the Second Half of the XX Century)

Academic journal article Review of European Studies

Historical Retrospective of Environmental Problems of Oil-Extracting Regions (on the Example of the Almetyevsk District of Tatarstan Republic in Russia in the Second Half of the XX Century)

Article excerpt

Abstract

Article is directed on identification of resistant interrelation of industrial development of the concrete territory and ecological consequences of this development. On examples of archival materials are disclosed sources of formation of negative impact on environment of Tatarstan Republic. As the leading approach to research of a problem is chosen the method of the retrospective analysis which allows to track extent of industrial impact on environment of the Almetyevsk oil area throughout the semicentennial period. Prerequisites of need of formation of environmental policy for the region come to light. As a result of research are made conclusions that development of productive forces in the region the long time was carried out without its ecological features. The serious aggravation of an ecological situation became a result of it. However it brought also to that, production during the planning and implementation of the activity began to rely on the principle of greening. Materials of this article can be useful to theoretical and practical justification of expediency of implementation of economic activity with a support on the principles nature and resource saving.

Keywords: ecological history, Tatarstan Republic, environment, oil production, environmental problems

1. Introduction

1.1 Relevance of a Problem

So far in historical literature are almost not studied sources and evolution of contradictions in system "the person-the nature", arisen during formation of new industrial centers. Relevance of a problem first of all, consists in it, which comprehensive analysis will allow to avoid many mistakes at the present stage.

1.2 Explore Importance of the Problem

The current state of environment, periodically arising local ecological crises in various regions of the world, and in Russia in particular, caused in society a great interest to studying of regularities of the biosphere and anthropogenic system of mankind. Now nobody doubts in direct dependence of health, a functional state and quality of human life from habitat, various conditions of a household and production activity. That bigger value gets providing a wide range of specialists of various profile with necessary data in these problems.

Obviously that sources of environmental problems are multifactorial. For the XX century under the influence of the objective and subjective reasons, natural resources were used by mankind proceeding from need of every possible development of economy. For Russia also the major was a question of ensuring defense capability. Was considered that natural resources are boundless, the state of environment is invariable therefore questions of their preservation weren't prime. It is enough to track dynamics of change of an ecological condition of the certain territory throughout a certain interval of time clearly to see rates of development of a problem

1.3 Status of a Problem

In the Russian historiography the problem "environmental problems of oil-extracting regions" remains undeveloped so far. Mentioned problem in a complex wasn't considered. However there are works investigating separate aspects of a problem.

The most serious contribution to development of a subject of formation of an oil complex in the Volga region region was made by L. A. Budkov and A. D. Budkova (Budkov & Budkova, 1976) which considered various aspects of creation and development of new oil base of the Soviet Union-"The Second Baku". They opened the increased value of Ural-Volga region oil base in providing the country with oil and oil products.

Distinctive sign of overwhelming part of the publications which appeared in the 60-80th of the XX century was their historical and political orientation.

Since the beginning of the 90th of last century there was an opportunity more objectively to estimate history of oil branch of the USSR. One of the most significant and promising areas that have attracted the attention of researchers, was the theme of the oil factor in the industrialization of the Soviet Union (Igolkin, 2005). …

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