Academic journal article Journal of Urban and Regional Analysis

Economic and Geographic Factors Affecting the Development of Greater Baku

Academic journal article Journal of Urban and Regional Analysis

Economic and Geographic Factors Affecting the Development of Greater Baku

Article excerpt

Introduction

Development and growth of the population number of cities intensify the speed of urbanization. The regulation of socioeconomic and demographic development of large cities, efficient land use in core and surrounding areas, the distribution of cities as separate functional zones, protection of the ecological balance, solutions to problems of employment and housing conditions, improvement of socio-cultural services are typical issues targeted in most large cities. However, it is increasingly difficult to solve these problems in the context of high population growth rate, strengthening the socio-economic base and with the enlargement of the cities' territory. In the same time, more and more countries and regions in the world are facing such situation. Therefore, many studies globally deal with the large cities, looking at the scientific and theoretical foundations of their development management as well as at the corresponding practical measures.

The second half of the twentieth century is a period of high population growth rate. Since gaining independence, most of the Asian, African and Latin American countries have had success in reaching socio-economic stability, and improvement of health care and social services compared to previous years. This positively affected the demographic conditions in these countries. High natural increase in the rural population has been taking place besides with socioeconomic problems faced by the villagers. As a result, mass migration of the population from rural areas to cities has been observed, and the urban population has grown rapidly in these countries. In the middle of the twentieth century, the yearly growth of the population has arrived to 40-50 million people (United Nations 1985), whereas it is of 85-90 million today (Demographic indicators 2013). The high population growth was followed by wide studies carried out by researchers since the middle of the 20th century, on cities from the United States (Vance 1971, Berry and Gillard 1977, Palm 1981), France (Bozhe-Garnye and Shabo 1967), Great Britain (Dickinson 1962, Kholl 1993, Taylor 1993) and other countries. These studies were devoted to the regulation of the urban population distribution, to urban planning, and to the demographic overloading of capital cities (Chatel 2011). Providing social security is increasingly becoming a serious problem in most of the European large cities (Stilwell 2010). These problems are characteristic also for the U.S. (Yang et al. 2012), and Canada (Xu 2011, Fong and Shen 2011).

In most cities of the developing countries, the high natural increase of the population leads to an increase in number of the urban population. The world's population, including the urban population of the planet, is growing mainly due to these countries. In this connection, the geographical expansion of cities, and the demographic development regulation are among the chiefly studied topics (Ferreira and Marques 2006, Müller-Mahn and Abdelghani 2006, Tallet and Valette 2010).

The shown urbanization problems were typical also for Eastern Europe and the CIS countries during the transition period. Important research on cities, the management of urbanization, the development problems in the transition period etc. were conducted in Russia (Khorev 1975, Maergoyz 1987, Pivovarov 1994, Lappo 1997, Pertsik 2009) and Poland (Flaga 2010, Grabkowska 2011).

The management of the urbanization development has its specific problems in the United States, Western Europe and Australia, and these issues are still of research interest (Wilczynski and Wilczynski 2011, Pacione 2009). The studied problems include the regulation of the relations between cities and their surroundings, population ageing, intensification of external migrations, increase of ethnic diversity, adaptation of migrants to place of destination, and the relations between the immigrants and the indigenous population (Catney and Simpson 2010, Xu 2011, Fong and Shen 2011), social conditions and job supply, keeping the ecological balance. …

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