Academic journal article Violence and Victims

Individual and Interpersonal Risk Factors for Physical Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration by Biological Sex and Ethnicity

Academic journal article Violence and Victims

Individual and Interpersonal Risk Factors for Physical Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration by Biological Sex and Ethnicity

Article excerpt

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem that reaches across age, sex, and ethnicity. In this study, we examined risk factors for physical IPV perpetration among young adult males and females from four ethnic groups. Data were taken from Waves 1-3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The sample included 10,141 Wave 3 respondents (ages ranged from 18-27 years old) who reported being in a current romantic relationship. Physical IPV perpetration was reported by 14.10% of White, 23.28% of Black, 18.82% of Latino, and 18.02% of Asian males. Physical IPV perpetration was reported by 19.01% of White, 24.80% of Black, 25.97% of Latina, and 19.21% of Asian females. Following an ecological framework, proximal risk factors at intrapersonal and interpersonal levels were included in the analyses. Despite finding fairly consistent percentage of physical IPV perpetration across sample groups, the risk factors for physical IPV perpetration were rather uncommon across sex and ethnicity. Only 1 factor-psychological IPV perpetration toward a romantic partner-was consistently associated with physical IPV perpetration across all groups. Our findings have implications for tailoring prevention and intervention efforts toward risk factors of physical IPV perpetration that are uniquely associated with biological sex and ethnicity.

Keywords: domestic violence; risk factors; physical violence; perpetration; gender; ethnicity

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem that reaches across age, sex, and ethnicity. The rates of physical IPV perpetration among samples of adolescents and young adults range from 26% to 46% (see review in Hickman, Jay cox, & Aronoff, 2004). Rates of physical IPV vary, based on the gender and ethnicity of the perpetrator. In one study, White couples reported 3% for male-to-female (the male perpetrates and the female is victimized) physical IPV and 7% female-to-male (the female perpetrates and the male is victimized) physical IPV, Black couples reported 3% male-to-female physical IPV and 10% female-to-male physical IPV, and Hispanic couples reported 5% male- tofemale physical IPV and 9% female-to-male physical IPV (Caetano, Ramisetty-Mikler, & Field, 2005). West and Rose (2000) found that African American females, aged 16-24 years old, reported physical perpetration (e.g., hitting, pushing, slapping their partner) against dating partners more than males. Chang, Shen, and Takeuchi (2009) reported the first national estimates of IPV among Asian Americans and found approximately 15% of males and 19% of females reporting physical IPV perpetration.

Although IPV is prevalent across all populations, understanding why variations in IPV have been found among ethnic groups has proved to be difficult (Ellison, Trinitapoli, Anderson, & Johnson, 2007). Summaries of risk factors from general IPV perpetration studies have limited applicability when it comes to understanding IPV among specific populations, and researchers continue to struggle with identifying any consistent risk factors for IPV perpetration. Although some researchers have examined the relation between race/ethnicity and IPV, race/ethnicity is seldom the focus of the study (Capaldi, Knoble, Shortt, & Kim, 2012), and few researchers have focused on risk factors for a specific type of IPV perpetration across sex and ethnicity. It is important to develop models that are specific to race/ethnicity and the type of violence (Cummings, Gonzalez-Guarda, & Sandoval, 2013) to more effectively tailor intervention strategies aimed at reducing the occurrence of IPV among unique populations.

Given the need to better understand correlates of IPV, the purpose of our study was to explore risk factors for physical IPV perpetration among young adult males and females from different ethnic groups. We followed an ecological framework (see Dutton, 2006; Stith, Smith, Penn, Ward, & Tritt, 2004) and highlighted individual and interpersonal (i. …

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