Academic journal article Asian Culture and History

The Moderating Effects of Self-Efficacy on the Relationship between Personality Traits (Extraversion, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Openness, and Conscientiousness) and Cigarette Smoking Behavior among Adolescents in Kerman, Iran

Academic journal article Asian Culture and History

The Moderating Effects of Self-Efficacy on the Relationship between Personality Traits (Extraversion, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Openness, and Conscientiousness) and Cigarette Smoking Behavior among Adolescents in Kerman, Iran

Article excerpt

Abstract

This paper aims to examine the relationship between personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, openness, and conscientiousness) and cigarette smoking behavior and also determine the moderating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between personality traits and cigarette smoking behavior among adolescents in Kerman, Iran. A quantitative research method was employed. The samples included three hundred current smoker adolescents between the ages of 15 to 18. The data was collected by means of self-administered questionnaires and then analyzed by AMOS software. The direct structural model was employed to figure out the path relationships between personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, openness, and conscientiousness) and cigarette smoking behavior. In addition, a multi-group analysis approach was applied to assess the moderating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, openness, and conscientiousness) and cigarette smoking behavior among adolescents. The results of testing the structural equation model showed that there were significant relationships between personality traits (neuroticism and conscientiousness) and cigarette smoking behavior whereas there was no significant relationship between personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness and openness) and cigarette smoking behavior. Also, the results related to the moderating effect of self-efficacy revealed that self-efficacy significantly moderated the effect of neuroticism on cigarette smoking behavior but did not moderate the relationship of other personality traits i.e. extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness with and cigarette smoking behavior. At the end, this study recommends some solutions in order to prevent cigarette smoking behavior among adolescents.

Keywords: personality traits, cigarette smoking behavior, self-efficacy, adolescents

1. Introduction

Cigarette smoking has been identified as a major public health problem worldwide (Eftekhari, Nassr & Sallehi, 2007; Sarafzade, Boshtam, & Tafazoli, 2004). It is a widely known risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and lung cancer, which are all associated with increased mortality rates (Berkow, Beers, & Fletcher, 2000; Deborah, 2006). Also, cigarette smoking contributes to chronic illnesses that decrease the quality of life and result in less productivity (Nichols, 2006). In addition, smoking has been found to correlate with the use of other substances, including alcohol and dmgs that can have additional negative consequences (Deborah, 2006; Junger, Stroebe, & Laan, 2001). Smoking is the sixth cause of death in the world and if the trend remains the same until 2030, the number of smoking-induced deaths will increase to eight to ten million (World Health Organization, 2008).

Initiation of cigarette smoking occurs almost exclusively during adolescence (Burns & Pierce, 1997; Poorasl, Fakhari, & Shamsipour, 2011; Ziaaddini, meymandi, & Zarezadeh, 2007). Many international studies have shown that about 85 to 90% of heavy smokers start smoking before the age of 20.They also indicated that smoking in adolescence is a strong predictor of smoking in adulthood (Mohammadpoor, Fakhari, & Rostami, 2007; Taioli & Wynder, 1991). Smoking just a few cigarettes during adolescence leads to a 16-fold increase of the risk of adult smoking (Mohammadpoor et al., 2007). Furthermore, the earlier one starts smoking, the more cigarettes per day one will smoke as an adult. Therefore, adolescent cigarette smoking is of a great significance for public health.

Cigarette consumption has been increasing in most developing countries during the past 20 years. The World Health Organization has described smoking as an epidemic in developing countries (Rozi, Butt, & Akhtar, 2007; World Health Organization, 2008). …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.