Academic journal article Asian Culture and History

The Role of Mathematics and Geometry in Formation of Persian Architecture

Academic journal article Asian Culture and History

The Role of Mathematics and Geometry in Formation of Persian Architecture

Article excerpt


Geometry is one of the main features in formation of Persian architecture. Research in Persian architecture geometry is impossible without familiar with geometry. This research tries to demonstrate the relationship between the progress of Persian architecture, geometry and mathematics evolution. In this regard, seeks to address the following questions: What is the relationship between the progress of Persian architecture and geometry evolution? To this end first, a detailed survey is conducted on the Persian Architecture and Mathematicians in the pre-Islamic and Islamic History. The Persian empires and dynasties are analyzed and chronologically organized to determine the evolution of mathematics and geometry impacts on the formation and development of Persian architecture. The research hypothesis is that evolution of mathematics and geometry, have a direct impact on the formation and development of Iranian architecture. This study depicts by development of mathematic geometric, Persian architecture has progressed and With the Fading communication between mathematicians and architects, manufacturing techniques of buildings has deteriorated.

Keywords: Persian architecture, Islamic geometry, mathematic

1. Introduction

Research in Persian architecture without knowledge of the geometry is impossible. Muslims considered geometry as an important science, balanced with mathematics, astrology and music. In Iranian architecture, geometrical and abstract patterns were emphasized as a forming factor (of whole structure), a decoration method (of components), alternatives and sense transformer. The development of geometry in Islamic World started during 8th and 9th centuries from Sanskrit and Greek texts to Arabian texts and till 10th century, Muslims achieved great successes in the field. An investigation of reasons of geometry importance in Islamic art and architecture and its reflection forms in these structures' whole body and components, considering cultures and values governing society and understanding meanings, is important. In the field of g eometry, great changes were occurred as a result of Umar al-KhayyamNote \ Abu al-Wafa' BuzjaniNote 2, al-KhwarizmiNote 3 and Ibn al-Haytham's efforts Note 4. It seems that there has been a relationship between geometricians and architects in Islamic World and linguistic description of this relationship can be seen in Arabic sense of Geometry, which is not only based on geometry but also meaning engineering. Muslim mathematicians such as Buzjani and Al-Kashi Note 5 provided manuals with the aim of describing fundamental principles of geometry and its applications in architecture. Such manuals are technical, and their aim is to make principles of mathematics easier and comprehensible for non-professionals of the area. It seems that developments in mathematics and consequently, in geometry and advent of new tools during historical dynasties of Iran have influenced developments of Iranian architecture, directly.

2. Method

Present investigation is theoretical-fundamental, carried out in historical-descriptive method. Needed information was gathered through studying valid historical sources and field observations. What we know about relation between architecture, and mathematic is largely based upon interpretive studies that investigate the progress of the Muslims in the Islamic and pre-Islamic historical texts. The study was conducted in the form of a historicinterpretative, with data being gathered via Conformity of history, art and science architecture. In the Islamic era and earlier, using available resources and library information. The aim of present investigation is to compare art, mathematics, geometry and the application of mathematics in architecture to obtain a definition and interpretation of component influencing Persian architecture from geometric point of view, through classifying mathematicians and scientists influencing Persian architecture, considering history and eliciting mathematical and geometric principles governing designs and principles of drawing. …

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