Academic journal article International Journal of Education

Literature Review of the Cooperative Learning Strategy - Student Team Achievement Division (STAD)

Academic journal article International Journal of Education

Literature Review of the Cooperative Learning Strategy - Student Team Achievement Division (STAD)

Article excerpt

Abstract

The literature review will include the development of cooperative learning (CL) and in-depth review on one of its derived teaching strategies, Student Team Achievement Division (STAD). It will highlight the emergence of STAD, major issues, debates, and recent investigations regarding its effectiveness, achievability, and practicability. The conclusion of this literature review provides a participative action inquiry into possible interventions. The literature review is highly relevant to the suggested research interest for some of the theoretical and conceptual frameworks and methodologies are searched and based on the existing STAD practice and knowledge in these two decades. The areas include the longitudinal and latitudinal review of relevant conceptual framework and methods, which further refine the newly proposed research questions and enhance their workability and practicability.

Keywords: STAD, Cooperative Learning, Research Methodology

1. Introduction

In this literature review we will include the development of cooperative learning (CL) and in-depth review on one of its derived teaching strategies, Student Team Achievement Division (STAD). Moreover, we will critically evaluate five pieces of researches in which it will highlight the emergence of STAD, major issues, debates, and recent investigations regarding STAD effectiveness, achievability, and practicability. The first one is from Ghazi (2001) which investigated students' enjoyment and reflection of STAD during an English lesson as Foreign Language (EFL) class in Lebanon. The study is unique because it examined the effect of gender and the students' achievement on the account of their STAD experiences. The perceptions from teachers are equally important so the second one selected is from the same researcher, Ghazi (2004), who further investigated the teachers' opinions on the STAD practice in Lebanon. Apart from the teachers and students, the contextual factors which influence the practice are also worth exploring. The third one is therefore from Khan & Inamullah in Pakistan (2011) which looked into the difference of effectiveness of STAD between experiment and control groups and how various contextual factors influenced the implementation. The work from Van Wyk (2010) in University of South Africa, which attempted to enhance the existing STAD practice and look into how the achievement scores were related to the modified practice, is selected as the fourth piece of research since it adopted a comparatively different quantitative approach by cumulating the use of the questionnaires. The last one was from Gillies (2004) in Australia which adopted a triangulative method to investigate the difference of structured and unstructured STAD groups. Gillies work(2004) is significant for it adopted a more holistic and comprehensive data collection for better reliability. Currently there are no researches related to STAD implemented in Hong Kong, all those five researches are hence chosen from different countries so that the glimpse on the global practice can be reviewed in this literature review.

2. Student Team Achievement Divisions (STAD)

Student Team Achievement Divisions (STAD) was established based on the fulfillment of instructional pedagogy (Felder & Bren, 2001; Ghaith, 2001). Four to five students will be assigned to various groups comprising certain levels of differentiation: competence, sex, race, and so on. In this case, teachers, as facilitators, would brief the students with concise yet precise instructions. Subsequently, students will read assigned material in the Expert Group before being reclassified into STAD groups to exchange their thoughts. After the discussion in the Expert Group, the students would then return to their STAD groups for information synthesis. They will have to justify others' opinions, peer evaluate their understanding, and summarize the concepts that each individual student contributed. …

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