Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

An Analysis of the Demand for Postgraduate Educational Science Programs*

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

An Analysis of the Demand for Postgraduate Educational Science Programs*

Article excerpt

Today, demand for education and for higher education in particular has increased significantly (Damme & Karkkainen 2011; OECD, 1978a; Sojkin, Bartkowiak, & Skuza, 2011). While educational systems have been developing rapidly to meet this demand, developing countries have also increased the resources allocated for education in general and higher education in particular after the Second World War (Ansal, 1997). Among the reasons for the increase in the resources allocated for education is the idea that education increases the efficiency of the workforce, and educated manpower is seen as the primary input of the economic system (Woodhall, 1994).

There are two dimensions in the estimation of demand, which could be defined as the wish and the opportunity to be able to attend a specific educational institution. These are social and individual dimensions. Social education demand could be calculated from the stand point of individual education demands (Hesapçioglu, 1984, p. 42). Factors affecting the individual education demands have been classified in different ways in the literature on educational economics. Serin (1979, pp. 26-36) classified the individual education demand as macro and micro economic factors whereas Harnqvist (1978 as cited in Tural, 1994) classified it as individual and institutional factors. In this study, factors affecting the individual demand were put into four groups of factors: academic/ individual, economic/vocational, socio-cultural/ familial, and institutional/structural.

Academic/Individual Factors

It is a common view that individual factors affect the individual educational demands in any education type or level (Erkiliç, 2007; Gürler, Turgutlu, Kirci, & Üçdogruk, 2007; Haase, 2011; Kurul, 1994; Menon, 1998; Serin, 1979; Ünal, 1996, Yolcu, 2011). Among the individual features are age, gender, race, ethnicity, strengths and weaknesses of the individual, one's interests, cognitive skills, and future expectations. Of those factors, cognitive skills have been the most studied in terms of its effect on individual demand. Attempts to explain the association between cognitive skills and the expectations from the education of an individual were made in a number of studies (Kodde & Ritzen, 1988; Psacharopoulos & Soumelis, 1979). There are also studies examining the effects of motivation (Menon, 1998), preferences (Tamm, 2008), future expectations, perceptions, and attitudes towards employment (Haase, 2011; William & Gordon, 1981) on an individual's educational demands.

Economic/Professional Factors

Economic/professional factors affecting education demands include dimensions such as cost of education, income level of an individual or family, income expectations, choice of profession, information about the market, and the state of the labor market. The fee paid for education service is the defined as the cost of education. The opposite is also true (Serin, 1979, pp. 35-37). As is the case for all other goods, the main determinant of the educational service demand is income level. Dowd (2004) found in his study that family income was a significant determinant for the completion of higher education. Blanden and Gregg (2004 as cited in Bakis, Levent, Insel, & Polat, 2009, p. 12), in a study conducted in Great Britain, determined that the probability of children completing high school whose families had a 33% decrease in their income, decreased between 3.3 and 6.7%. Likewise, Lankford (1986) found that an increase in the number of individuals in the family affected the education demand negatively because of the increase in educational expense. In the distribution of household consumption expenditures by quintiles ordered by income in Turkey in 2012, with regard to educational expenditures, the share of the first quintile was 2.3%, while the share of the fifth quintile was 66.8% (Türkiye Istatistik Kurumu, 2013).

Preference of profession is another variable affecting education demand. …

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