Academic journal article International Education Studies

The Effects of Metacognitive Strategy in Reading Expository Text

Academic journal article International Education Studies

The Effects of Metacognitive Strategy in Reading Expository Text

Article excerpt


The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of student achievement during comprehension lesson using metacognitive strategy and examine the effects of the strategy used in reading and understanding expository text lessons. Besides, this study also identified metacognitive strategy used by students in all three reading processes (before reading, during reading and after reading). The research applied a quasi-experimental design. Research sample involved Standard 4 students from a government primary school in Muara Brunei District. Samples were divided into two groups, namely the experimental group and the control group. Each group involved 30 average-ranking students. Research results were analysed using independent t-test samples to assess the significant differences for mean of reading comprehension performance between control group and experimental group during pre and post-tests. Meanwhile One Way Ancova analysis was used to determine the effects of using metacognitive strategy during reading comprehension lessons. Based on the t-test analysis, there was a significant difference of reading comprehension performance between the score of experimental group and control group, t = 12.96, p < 0.0. The analysis of One Way Ancova data, p= 0.00 < 0.05 (F " ratio = 493.22/2.25 = 219.41 p < 0.05) also proved that the significant effects of metacognitive strategy usage on comprehension lesson. Overall, the metacognitive strategy used by the students in this study has proven to enhance students' understanding on the texts that they have read.

Keywords: metacognitive strategy, lesson, reading and comprehension, expository text, quasi-experiment

1. Introduction

1.1 Background

Reading is an important verbal skill that needs to be accomplished by students so that they can explore knowledge thoroughly (Yahya, 2010). In the process of reading a text, a reader has to understand the content, information, explanation or facts intended to be delivered by the author. In another words, the reading process can be complex because readers would have to involve the quality of thought for the purpose of understanding the text. Without understanding the text that has been read, the reader will not be considered to have mastered the reading skill (Korabiak & Mete, 2004). This is because reading and understanding are constructive processes that support one another (Yahya & Ghazali, 2010). For an effective reader, the capacity of understanding a text is seen as important even in primary school.

The 21st century National Education System (SPN21) in Brunei Darussalam stated that the reading skill is not just perceived as a skill to pronounce and spell each word. The reading skill includes student's efficiency to read a sentence or a text smoothly as well as to correct pronunciation, intonation, and pauses. Emphasis is given on aspects such as understanding and reasoning of various materials, whether significantly or critically and analytically implied by using various reading techniques (Curriculum Development Department, 2009).

In addition, according to Yahya and Noradinah (2012) reading skill is not only limited to text comprehension skill and solely answering various comprehension questions, but the reading skill should also involve students' skills in evaluating information to solve problems, associating information with particular occasion, commenting and making assessments and conclusion based on information obtained from the reading materials.

Therefore, various learning strategies are used in reading and comprehension lessons. One of the strategies used is the metacognitive strategy. The purpose is to increase students' perceptions on the text being read thoroughly.

The metacognitive strategy is not something new in the education field. According to Eilers and Pinkley (2006), this strategy is applied and taught to students to enhance the understanding of a text that has been read. …

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