Academic journal article Economics, Management and Financial Markets

Being a Woman in Turkey: An Application

Academic journal article Economics, Management and Financial Markets

Being a Woman in Turkey: An Application

Article excerpt

ABSTRACT.

Development is not limited to the opportunity to life and access to basic social services; it is also the creation of an environment enabling people to realize their rights and participate in society. Obstacles to development are enormous for many girls and women, with particular challenges in poor countries; the figures support this: Two-thirds of the world's illiterate are women, making it harder for them to earn a living, benefit from opportunities available in their societies. Women's role is essential in the development, but their particular needs and rights are not often reflected in development policies and practices. Consequently, empowering women and enabling them to participate and contribute to social, economic and political activities is important for sustainable growth. Women's empowerment and economic development are interrelated: development alone can significantly drive down inequality between men and women; empowering women may promote development. This paper reviews the socioeconomic status of women in Turkey and European Union Countries. In this context, cluster analysis will be used from the statistical methods. Basic variables used are Labor Force Participation, Estimated Earned Income, Legislators, Senior Officials/Managers, Professional/Technical Workers, Literacy Rate, Enrollment in Primary Education/Secondary Education/Tertiary Education, Healthy life Expectancy, Women in the Parliament/Ministerial Positions, Years with Female Head of State. The primary aim is to determine the socio-economic status of Turkish women among the European countries. The basic subjects are women and development and the results of Cluster analyses and discussions.

JEL codes: 010; F00; 130; 124; J16

Keywords: women; development; cluster analysis; Turkey, European Union

1. Introduction

While woman plays a significant role in the development process, the needs and rights of women are frequently overlooked in the development policies and practices. While the economic welfare of women is one of the primary indicators of the progress of the society, it is observed that there are important problems in the socio-economic status of women. It may be expressed that the unequal opportunities that women are faced with in the social, economic and political sense, lie behind this problem. The gender inequality may increase the inequality of opportunities for women in accessing efficient resources, financial services, means of education and healthcare. Moreover, political and cultural obstacles may also play a role in this problem. All of these limit women from effective participation in the economy and their adequate benefit from economic development. Therefore, the empowerment of women, and their active participation in economic, social and political activities are quite important for development.

The purpose of this paper is to start off with the idea that the social and economic status of women is important for development and to determine the socio-economic status of the Turkish women among the women of the European Union. To that end, first the relationship between women and development will be examined; followed by brief information on cluster analysis, chosen from the statistical methods, and then, the socio-economic status of the Turkish women among the European Union women will be determined using cluster analysis. Finally, the results of the cluster analysis will be interpreted and solution recommendations will be provided.

2. Women and Development

"Over the past three decades, gender issues have increasingly gained prominence on the development agenda. More attention is being given to the plight of the poor and disadvantaged women in developing countries, and to the unending gender agenda in more developed countries" (King et al, 2009: 585). Whereas, from our perspective, woman is one of the essential keystones of social and economic development, both as a mother who will play a significant role in the growth of the future generations, and also as an essential part of the labor market that will add value to economic development. …

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